AFRICA AND THE WORLD WAR ONE • Background : causes of the war. • A European affair. Allied powers –Britain France, Russia, • Belgium, Serbia, Italy and USA vs. the Central Powers-Germany, Austria- Hungary and Turkey 1. Competition bet Britain and Germany for naval supremacy leading to arms race. 2. Tension in Europe-Pan –Slavism. 3. Traditional hatred bet Germany and France. 4. Austria- Hungary and Russian Tension 5. Formation of Alliances after the Franco- Prussian war engineered 1906- Triple Entente of France ,Britain and Russia as a counter coalition against Triple Alliance in case of any thing. What sparked of the War? • Assassination of the Austrian Crown Price Archduke Franz Ferdinard and his wife on June 28TH 1914 by a Bosnia- Serb student Gavrilo Pricip. • From start of war in August 1914 to April 1917 America pursued isolationist policy why? • A European affair, USA not threatened by war had nothing at stake to fight for, President Woodrow Wilsons philosophy of humanism – hated war. America changes Position. • Outbreak of Russian Revolution in March 1917 which removed the despotic Tsar of Russia, • Zimmerman Telegram from Germany that suggested an Alliance bet Germany and Mexico so that if USA Entered the war, Germany would help Mexico to recover the Mexican lost territories of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. • German submarine menace, - using their modern U boats to sink other boats that included merchant ships bitterly annoyed USA. • Finally on 2nd April President Woodrow Wilson declared war on Germany. African involvement • • • • • African colonies were forced to support the mother countries. The support was given in various forms Food crops Carrier corps. Pioneer corps e.g. Kings African Rifles. • Only in South Africa, Africans were not allowed guns. • Many Africans were recruited to join the war against their will, e.g. British recruited 50,000 people from Sierra • Leone, Nigeria and Ghana. • In West Africa, French recruited 150,000 to fight as troops –Blaise Diagne played a crucial role in recruiting people for example when requested to recruit 40,000 ,he provided 60,000 instead. African Participation. • • There were several war theaters in Africa, South West Africa, North Africa and East Africa. Allied powers were bent on defeating Germans in Africa. • Britain joins French allies to fight Germans in Africa. North Africa- Egypt, Turks joined war in support of Germany, were rooted by the British –to protect the Nile and the Suez Canal. South-West Africa ( Namibia) Germans were defeated in late 1915. Togoland was easily defeated by the allies. kamerun The struggle took a long period e.g. 15 months before the defeat of the Germans German East Africa (Tanganyika)- the toughest war theater in Africa. South African Soldiers and West African troops came to help the British. British forces came from Sudan and Belgians from West –Congo. The Campaign lasted the war duration British bombarded Dar es Salam and Tanga but were defeated at the battle of Tanga. Defeated in Nyanza Province of Kenya and British had to retreat. The East African Campaign • Lasted longest the last shot of World war 1 were fired in this theater. • German General Lettow Von Verbeck was undefeated. • Knew the numerical strength of British forces. Was outnumbered10:1 • So used guerrilla tactics aimed at tying the forces in • Africa so that they cannot be used in Europe. • Used Scorched earth Policy and retreat tactics. • Was still fighting in Northern Rhodesia when truce was signed in Europe. The war and Partition • The World war 1 marked the end of partition of Africa, • German territories were dismembered and shared by the victors, • Togoland & Cameroon=French and Britain. • Rwanda & Burundi=Belgium. • Tanganyika= Britain as mandate territory. • S.W. Africa =South Africa. African Response. • Rejected the war, had northing to do with them. • Rejected the dying of Africans in the war e.g. John ChilembeMalawi refused his people to join the war. • Surprised that the European colonizers were fighting among themselves. They never fought during partition. • Retreated into the forests to avoid being conscripted to the war • e.g. French territories in West Africa. • Saw opportunity to assert their self determination that they had lost and many rebellions occurred led by African churches e.g. Mumbo cult of Kenya, Harris movement in West Africa Birth of proto- nationalist movements and rebellions e.g. Afrikaner in S. Africa, riots in Nigeria, Egypt, Libya, Mozambique, Rwanda and Madagascar. Results of the War in Africa • • • • • • • • • Destruction of land –scorched earth policy, farms & villages destroyed. Starvation and Suffering as African food was taken by force by warring forces or paid at very low prices. Deaths- People died fighting or due to diseases, e.g. 1 million had joined war in Kenya and TZ as porters,100,000 a died Spread of new diseases e.g. Influenza brought back by the troops and Africans had no immunity. Many leant how to use guns and drive military vehicles. European superiority was demystified saw them afraid in trenches & some died. Exposure to other troops from other parts e.g. India sensitized them about equality. Came to know why the Europeans were fighting, many learnt to read – exposed to world Affairs. Birth of Nationalism due American President Woodrow Wilson 14 points= right to self determination. Economic hardships – export crops stopped e.g. palm oil in Nigeria, shortage of labor as able bodied people taken to serve the war , hence fall in agricultural production.