Struggles for Democracy,
1945–Present
China and governments in Latin America, Africa, and
the former Soviet bloc respond to calls for democracy.
NEXT
Struggles for Democracy,
1945–Present
SECTION 1
Democracy
SECTION 2
The Challenge of Democracy in Africa
SECTION 3
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
SECTION 4
Changes in Central and Eastern Europe
SECTION 5
China: Reform and Reaction
NEXT
Section 1
Democracy
In Latin America, economic problems and
authoritarian rule delay democracy.
NEXT
SECTION
1
Democracy
Democracy As a Goal
Difficulties in Establishing Democracy
• Common practices include free elections and
citizen participation
• Also: majority rule, minority rights, constitutional
government
• Difficult to establish democracy—even in U.S., took
many years
• These practices need conditions in country to
support them
• Education and a stable economy help
• So do individual rights, rule by law, sense of
national identity
NEXT
SECTION
1
Dictators and Democracy
Brazil’s Early History
• Brazil: monarchy in 1822, republic controlled by
wealthy in 1889
• In 1930s, dictator suppresses opposition but builds
economy
Kubitschek’s Ambitious Program
• Juscelino Kubitschek builds economy, new capital
city—Brasília
• His followers back reforms, but conservatives object
to land reform
• Land reform—breaking up huge estates into
holdings for peasants
• Wealthy Brazilians support takeover by military in
1964
Continued . . .
NEXT
SECTION
1
continued Dictators
and Democracy
Military Dictators
• Military rules for two decades, building economy
but cutting wages
• Standard of living—level of material comfort—
declines
The Road to Democracy
• In 1980s, Brazil has recession—economic slowdown
• Civilian leaders elected but cannot fix economy
The 2002 Presidential Election
• New election in 2002 includes rivals with different
economic views
• Luis Inácio Lula da Silva wins election; hopes to
reclaim economy
NEXT
SECTION
1
One-Party Rule
Beginnings of One-Party Domination
• In 1920s and 1930s, leaders build a party that
dominates Mexico
• Lázaro Cárdenas rules 1934–1940, next presidents
abandon his reforms
The Party Becomes the PRI
• In 1946, main party becomes PRI—Institutional
Revolutionary Party
• Party controls government; fraud, corruption mar
elections
• In 1968, students and workers protest, soldiers fire
on crowd
• Mexico depends on oil and gas income, suffers
when prices fall
Continued . . .
NEXT
SECTION
1
continued One-Party
Rule
Economic and Political Crises
• Opposition parties gain support, force reforms in
1988
• In 1994, rebels in southern Mexico state of
Chiapas stage uprising
The PRI Loses Control
• Other parties gain many seats in Congress
• Center-right candidate Vicente Fox wins presidency
in 2000
New Policies and Programs
• As new president, Fox has many ambitious goals
NEXT
SECTION
1
Political and Economic Disorder
Perón Rules Argentina
• In 1946, Juan Perón becomes dictator in Argentina;
ousted in 1955
Repression in Argentina
• Military rules into 1970s, but country develops many
problems
• Government moves harshly against opposition,
killing many people
Democracy and the Economy
• Government disgraced after losing Falklands war in
1982
• Civilians elected to lead, but cannot solve economic
problems
Continued . . .
NEXT
SECTION
1
continued Political
and Economic Disorder
A Growing Crisis
• Economic problems continue with high debt,
unemployment
NEXT
Section 2
The Challenge of
Democracy in Africa
As the recent histories of Nigeria and South
Africa show, ethnic and racial conflicts can
hinder democracy.
NEXT
SECTION
2
The Challenge of Democracy
in Africa
Colonial Rule Limits Democracy
European Policies Cause Problems
• Borders of colonies in Africa ignore ethnic, cultural
divisions
• As a result, national identity is slow to develop in
Africa
• Colonial rule produces economic problems
• Colonial rule also disrupts family, community life
Short-Lived Democracies
• Post-independence governments fragile, vulnerable
to military coups
NEXT
SECTION
2
Civil War in Nigeria
A Land of Many Peoples
• Nigeria has people from three ethnic groups, each
with own state
• Country adopts federal system—state, central
governments share power
War with Biafra
• In 1960s, country torn by ethnic fighting
• Military imposes martial law—temporary military
rule—in 1966
• In 1967, eastern region leaves Nigeria, forms new
country of Biafra
• War ends in 1970 with Biafra defeated, Nigeria
reunited
NEXT
SECTION
2
Nigeria’s Nation-Building
Federal Government Restored
• In 1970s and 1980s military tries to create stable
federal system
A Return to Civilian Rule
• General Sani Abacha overturns election results of
1993, takes power
• He punishes dissidents—government opponents
• In 1999, civilian government finally gains power
President Obasanjo
• Obasanjo tries to build strong, unified Nigeria by
ending corruption
• Promotes idea of forgiveness of Nigeria’s debt to
rebuild country
NEXT
SECTION
2
South Africa Under Apartheid
Minority Rule
• South Africa gains independence in 1931; white
minority rules
Apartheid Segregates Society
• In 1948, National Party enacts apartheid—
separation of races
• Government sets up reserves, called homelands, for
blacks in 1959
Blacks Protest
• In 1912, blacks form African National Congress
(ANC) to protest
• Nelson Mandela—ANC leader imprisoned for 27
years
• Protests rise in 1970s and 1980s, sometimes
resulting in violence
NEXT
SECTION
2
Struggle for Democracy
Pressure for Change
• Religious leader Desmond Tutu urges economic
pressure on government
• He asks other countries not to trade with South
Africa
The First Steps
• In 1990, F. W. de Klerk legalizes ANC, frees
Mandela from prison
• Parliament repeals apartheid laws, grants rights to
blacks
• De Klerk agrees to elections open to all races to be
held in 1994
Continued . . .
NEXT
SECTION
2
continued Struggle
for Democracy
Majority Rule
• In 1994, ANC wins majority of Parliament;
Mandela elected president
A New Constitution
• In 1996, new constitution adopted giving equal rights
to all
South Africa Today
• In 1999, Thabo Mbeki elected president
• He faces challenges: high crime, unemployment,
rampant poverty
• He hopes to increase trade with other countries
• Major problem facing South Africa is high number of
people with AIDS
NEXT
Section 3
The Collapse of the
Soviet Union
Democratic reforms bring important changes to
the Soviet Union.
NEXT
SECTION
3
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
Gorbachev Moves Toward Democracy
Problems Develop
• Politburo—ruling committee of Communist Party;
rules USSR harshly
• Leonid Brezhnev dies in 1982; two successors rule
briefly
A Younger Leader
• Mikhail Gorbachev—becomes Soviet leader in 1984
• Young, energetic, skilled, wants to pursue new
policies
Glasnost Promotes Openness
• To achieve economic reforms, he needs open
dialogue in society
• Promotes new policy of glasnost—openness;
dissent allowed
NEXT
SECTION
3
Reforming the Economy and Politics
Economic Restructuring
• People complain about lack of goods; Gorbachev
blames old system
• In 1985, he introduces perestroika—policy of
economic restructuring
• Hopes to make economy more efficient,
productive
Democratization Opens the Political System
• In 1987, he unveils plans to have more democracy
• Voters, given a choice, elect many reformers to new
legislature
Foreign Policy
• Gorbachev signs arms control agreements with U.S.
NEXT
SECTION
3
The Soviet Union Faces Turmoil
Ethnic Revolts
• Gorbachev wants to reform Soviet Union, but
reforms lead to collapse
• Non-Russian ethnic groups rebel in different
republics
Lithuania Defies Gorbachev
• In 1990, Lithuania declares independence
• Gorbachev, fearing similar actions in other republics,
sends troops
Yeltsin Denounces Gorbachev
• Reformer Boris Yeltsin rallies people against
Communist old guard
• Old-time Communists oppose both Gorbachev and
Yeltsin
Continued . . .
NEXT
SECTION
3
continued The
Soviet Union Faces Turmoil
The August Coup
• In August 1991, hardliners try to seize control of
government again
• Thousands of protesters and Yeltsin rally against
this move
• Army refuses to attack protesters and coup
collapses
End of the Soviet Union
• Government takes actions to punish Communist
Party for the coup
• Many republics declare independence; Gorbachev
cannot stop them
• Republics form a federation, CIS—Commonwealth of
Independent States
NEXT
SECTION
3
Russia Under Boris Yeltsin
Yeltsin Faces Problems
• Yeltsin aims to reform the Russian economy
• Tries “shock therapy”—quick transition to free
market system
• New policies bring economic chaos and hardship,
political troubles
Chechnya Rebels
• In 1991, Chechnya declares independence from
Russia
• Yeltsin attempts to crush rebellion, causing unrest at
home
• As conflict continues in 1999, he resigns in favor of
Vladimir Putin
NEXT
SECTION
3
Russia Under Vladimir Putin
Troubles Continue in Chechnya
• Fighting drags on in Chechnya
• In 2002, Chechen rebels seize theater in
Moscow, many die
Economic, Political, and Social Problems
• Economic problems continue, leading to unstable
politics
• Social problems include homelessness,
unemployment
• Declines in population, standard of living, average life
expectancy
NEXT
Section 4
Changes in Central and
Eastern Europe
Changes in the Soviet Union lead to
changes throughout Central and Eastern
Europe.
NEXT
SECTION
4
Changes in Central and
Eastern Europe
Poland and Hungary Reform
The Rise of Solidarity
• Workers strike to win recognition of Solidarity—
Polish labor union
• Lech Walesa—leader of union—becomes national
hero
Solidarity Defeats Communists
• Communist government bans Solidarity but cannot
solve economic woes
• In 1988, workers rebel to force recognition of
Solidarity
• Elections in 1989 and 1990 make Walesa president
of Poland
Continued . . .
NEXT
SECTION
4
continued Poland
and Hungary Reform
Poland Votes Out Walesa
• Walesa tries to build free market economy quickly
• Though some progress made, many Poles
unhappy; Walesa voted out
Poland Under Kwasniewski
• Alexander Kwasniewski elected president in 1995
• Brings Poland into NATO, tries to build strong
market economy
Hungarian Communists Disband
• In 1990, voters elect non-Communist government in
Hungary
• Democracy thrives; Hungary joins NATO in 1999
NEXT
SECTION
4
Germany Reunifies
Resistance to Change
• East Germany’s leader resists reforms as in
Poland, Hungary
• Thousands of East Germans escape through
Hungary to Austria
Fall of the Berlin Wall
• East Germany closes its borders, sparking massive
protests
• In late 1989, new East German leader opens Berlin
Wall
• By end of year, Communist government there has
collapsed
Continued . . .
NEXT
SECTION
4
continued Germany
Reunifies
Reunification
• Reunification—merging of the two Germanys—
achieved in 1990
Germany’s Challenges
• East Germany in poor shape, needs rebuilding
• This costly effort forces German leader Helmut Kohl
to raise taxes
A New Chancellor
• In 1998, Kohl voted out of office
• New leader—Gerhard Schroeder—has difficulty
reviving economy
• Germany becomes more active in world affairs after
reunifying
NEXT
SECTION
4
Democracy Spreads in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia Reforms
• In 1989, large crowd in Prague protests,
demands democracy
• Tough government crackdown sparks more
protests
• By late 1989, Communists are gone; Václav
Havel elected president
Czechoslovakia Breaks Up
• Economic reforms hurt people in Slovakia, eastern
part of country
• In 1993, Czechoslovakia splits into two separate
countries
• Both economies grow—slow in Czech Republic;
faster in Slovakia
NEXT
SECTION
4
Overthrow in Romania
A Popular Uprising
• In late 1989, Romania’s leader has army shoot
protestors
• This action prompts major revolt and collapse of
Communist rule
• Dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and wife executed
Christmas Day, 1989
The Romanian Economy
• Corruption and crime prevalent through 1990s;
economy lags
• Much of economy still owned by government, not in
private hands
• But Government begins moving toward market
economy
NEXT
SECTION
4
The Breakup of Yugoslavia
Ethnic Problems
• Yugoslavia has 8 ethnic groups in a federation of
6 republics
A Bloody Breakup
• Milosevic, Serbian leader, tries to impose control on
whole country
• Slovenia and Croatia fight off Serbian army, win
independence
• In 1992, Bosnia-Herzegovina declares
independence; war breaks out
• Serb forces practice ethnic cleansing—getting rid
of Bosnian Muslims
• In 1995, U.S., UN establish peace setting up
multiethnic government
Continued . . .
NEXT
SECTION
4
continued The
Breakup of Yugoslavia
Rebellion in Kosovo
• In 1998, fighting starts in Kosovo, Serb province
of ethnic Albanians
• Serbian army invades to put down Albanian
rebels with harsh force
• In 1999, NATO bombs Serbia, forces Serbs to
withdraw
The Region Faces Its Problems
• Serbia has new leader; Milosevic faces war crimes
trials
• Montenegro and Serbia form loose union, may
separate in future
NEXT
Section 5
China: Reform and
Reaction
In response to contact with the West,
China’s government has experimented
with capitalism but has rejected calls for
democracy.
NEXT
SECTION
5
China: Reform and Reaction
The Legacy of Mao
Problems of Mao’s Rule
• Mao Zedong wants to improve China’s economy, but
cannot
• Mao’s policies, a lack of modern technology prevent
economic growth
• He launches Cultural Revolution in 1960s to revive
Communist spirit
• Its excesses turn many people against communism
• Zhou Enlai—leader in early 1970s—pursues
moderate policies
NEXT
SECTION
5
China and the West
China Opened Its Doors
• Zhou worries that China is too isolated from rest
of world
• In 1971, U.S. and China begin closer relations
Economic Reform
• In 1976, Mao and Zhou die; moderates take control of
Communist Party
• Deng Xiaoping—becomes leader of China by 1980
• Four Modernizations—Deng’s plan for economic
progress
• This policy reverses strict Communist policies long
backed by Mao
NEXT
SECTION
5
Massacre in Tiananmen Square
Unforeseen Problems
• Reforms lead to some unrest over privileges of
Communist leaders
• Western political ideas enter China, encouraging
democracy
Students Demand Democracy
• In 1989, students protest in Tiananmen Square—
public area in Beijing
Deng Orders a Crackdown
• Deng orders army to surround square, attack
protesters
• Attack leaves hundreds dead, thousands wounded
• Government begins large-scale campaign to end
dissent
NEXT
SECTION
5
China Enters the New Millennium
China Under Jiang
• In 1997, Deng dies; Jiang Zemin takes power
• Hardliners want Jiang to move away from Deng’s
reforms
• In 2002, Jiang steps down in favor of Zhu Rongji
• Both Jiang and Zhu favor continued reforms
Transfer of Hong Kong
• Hong Kong—former British colony, city in China,
major economic power
• In 1997, Britain hands Hong Kong back to China
NEXT
SECTION
5
China Beyond 2000
Economics and Politics
• Economic reforms reduce poverty in China
• Though many countries have economic
problems, China’s economy grows
• Many in China want political reforms
• China is becoming more involved with other
countries
NEXT
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