Unit 4: Imperialism Bellwork: What are your thoughts on the presidential election? Is voting important? When you get older, will you vote? What We Will Learn: 10.4.4: Describe the independence struggles of the colonized regions of the world, including the roles of ideology and religion in China. 12.1 China Resists Outside Influence Objectives Explain China’s resistance to foreigners. Describe rebellions that shook China. Summarize effects of China’s reforms. Trace the growth of nationalism there. Essential Question What importance did spheres of influence have on China? The Big Idea Western economic pressure forced China to open to foreign trade and influence. China has become an increasingly important member of the global community. Chinese looked down on all foreigners due to pride in their ancient culture However, the emperor of the Qing Dynasty allowed an English ambassador in 1793 The Englishmen brought gifts of the West’s most advanced technology: clocks, globes, musical instruments, hot air balloon The emperor was not impressed -sent a letter to England stating the Chinese already had everything they needed and were not interested in the “strange” objects that the West were offering them China was able to reject offers from the West because it was self-sufficient -healthy agricultural economy -mining (natural resources) provided jobs -manufacturing – silk, cotton, and porcelain Check for Understanding Why was China able to reject offers from the West? China had little interest in trade with the West due to their selfsufficiency Refused to trade with most countries European merchants were determined to find a product the Chinese would buy in large quantities • Europeans eventually found Opium- habit forming narcotic made from poppy plants • British smuggled opium into China for nonmedical use and by 1835, as many as 12 million Chinese people were addicted to the drug • In the 19th century, Opium addiction spread rapidly among Chinese government employees and soldiers. Historians blame the drug for a decline in China’s standard of living and for the deterioration of public services, which eventually led to massive peasant uprisings during the mid-1800s. • Growing supply of Opium caused problems for China • The Qing emperor was angry about the situation and had advisors write letters to Queen Victoria of England • Despite letters from the Chinese, the British refused to stop trading Opium • Resulting in the Opium War between China and Britain in 1839 • Battles were mostly at sea • China’s outdated ships were no match for the British Navy and steampowered boats • China suffered a humiliating defeat Check for Understanding Why did war break out between China and Britain? • Signed the Treaty of Nanjing for peace in 1842 • Treaty gave Britain the island of Hong Kong • Gained extraterritorial rightsforeigners not subject to Chinese law while at Chinese trade ports • Many Chinese greatly resented the foreigners and bustling trade in Opium they conducted • Foreigners were not the greatest of China’s problems • China’s population became an overwhelming challenge • By 1850 there were 430 million Chinese- a 30% gain in only 60 years • Food production did not increase • hunger became widespread, people were discouraged, and Opium addiction rose steadily • As a result, the Chinese began to rebel against the Qing Dynasty Check for Understanding Why did the Chinese begin to revolt after the Treaty of Nanjing? • During the 1830s, Hong Xiuquan began recruiting followers to help him build a “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” • In his kingdom, all Chinese people would share China’s vast wealth and no one would live in poverty • This movement was called the Taiping Rebellion (Taiping means “great peace”) • By the 1850s, Hong organized a massive peasant army of over 1 million people • Taiping army took control of large areas of southeastern China • 1853- Hong captured the city of Nanjing and declared it the capital • Hong then withdrew from everyday life and left his family and friends in charge of the government • Taiping government constantly feuded and were eventually brought down by the imperial powers of France and Britain • China paid a terrible price with losing more than 20 million people in the rebellion Video: Tai Ping Rebellion Check for Understanding What were the results of the Taiping Rebellion? • China faced many internal problems with other small uprisings after the Taiping Rebellion • They faced external problems as well due to increased foreign pressure • Other nations were aware of China’s growing problems and began to take advantage of the situation • European powers and Japan gained a strong hold or Sphere of influence on China’s economy as they forced them to sign treaties after each conflict • “Sphere of influence”, is an area where a foreign country controls all economic development. The land would still belong to China but another foreign government would control it. Check for Understanding What is the sphere of influence? • By 1899, the U.S. was a major power in Asia • 3rd largest navy in the world • Primary interest in Asia was not conquest but commerce new markets • In 1899, U.S. Secretary of State John Hay established the Open Door policy. • This policy declared that other nations must share trading rights in China with the US-“leave their doors open”. • Other nations decided they had to agree. China was not consulted. I want a piece too! • Chinese pressed for strong reforms due to humiliation from foreigners • Demanded modernization, reorganizing education, strengthened economy, and improved military • Failed attempts to reform China led to violent uprisings Check for Understanding How did the Open Door Policy help lead to the upsurge of Chinese nationalism? • Secret Chinese society- Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists • Began organizing to kick out foreign control. • One of these groups were called the “Boxers” • In 1900 the Boxers attacked foreigners, killing hundreds of Christian missionaries, and others. • They kept the city under siege for several months • The government sent in 19,000 troops marched into Beijing and quickly defeated the Boxers • Despite the failure of the Boxer Rebellion- Chinese nationalism increased Check for Understanding What was the Boxer Rebellion?