Katelyn Kinne China and the West Tea-Opium Connection China traded at a port, Guangzhou, even though they had little interest in trading with the west. European smuggled opium into China for nonmedical uses. By 1835, 12 million people were addicted to the drug. China and the West War Breaks Out Opium War The British had steam powered gunships but the Chinese ship’s were outdated. After losing the war, the Chinese signed a peace treaty, the Treaty of Nanjing. The British got the island of Hong Kong, and extraterritorial rights. Growing Internal Problems The population began to grow but food production didn’t increase. Hunger was widespread and the opium addiction rose. The people began to rebel. Growing Internal Problems Taiping Rebellion Hong Xiuquan gathered followers for the Taiping Rebellion. His army attacked and won different areas and cities, including the city of Nanjing. Xiuquan made Nanjing his capital. British, French, and Chinese forces defeated the rebellion. Possibly 20 million or more people died in the rebellion. Foreign Influence Grows Resistance to Change Dowager Empress Cixi (1862-1908) supported certain reforms. Updated educational system, diplomatic service, and the military. Foreign Influence Grows Other Nations Step In European countries and Japan gained a foothold in China. The foothold was called sphere of influence, foreign countries controlled trade and investment. The United States declared the Open Door Policy, China be open to merchants of all nations. That way China cannot be divided into formal colonies. An Upsurge in Chinese Nationalism Boxer Rebellion Chinese people rebelled against the Dowager Empress’s rule and against foreigner privileges. Boxer’s siege European section of Beijing and were later defeated Even after the rebellion was defeated, a strong sense of nationalism emerged in China. They felt they must resist foreign intervention. An Upsurge in Chinese Nationalism Beginnings of Reform The Chinese decided to create a Constitutional Monarchy type government. But it would take years for the reforms to start making change.