Chapter 1
NEW WORLD ENCOUNTERS
Native American Histories before Conquest
 Humans occupied part of the Western Hemisphere thousands of years
before the European discovery of America. Environmental conditions
spurred ancient settlement as glaciers moved south and uncovered a
______ __________ connecting Asia and N. America, across which
came the Paleo-Indians
 Food, climate, culture and especially global warming ended the Ice
Age, allowing Native American cultures to expand their populations
and where they lived. As food sources changed due to the
____________ Revolution, so did their cultures, and soon they
developed semi-agricultural societies of considerable sophistication
 Three of those societies included:
Cahokia
Native American city near
present day St. Louis.
Rivaled European cities in
size and sophistication
Aztecs
Complex and successful
empire in central Mexico.
Tenochtitlan, center of
Aztec culture, contained
250,000 inhabitants
Eastern Woodland
formed along the NE Atlantic
coast, into the Great Lakes.
Diverse and mobile
community of hunters,
gatherers, and farmers
A World Transformed
N.A. were
profoundly
changed by
contact with
Europeans.
Some good,
mostly bad
Good:
Iron tools
Some adopted
Christianity
BAD:
•Seen as the main obstacles to settlement
•European trade goods quickly became a part
of N.A. culture, and their efforts to gather furs
for trade upset the ecological balance
•This also caused increasing tension between
tribes as competition increased.
•N.A. not killed in battle died as a result of
disease brought by Europeans to the Americas
Imagining a New World
Spain
France
England
•With explorers like
Christopher __________
leading the way, Spain
established the largest
colonial empire in the New
World.
•The _____________ were
independent adventurers
that led the Spanish
movement in carving out a
colonial empire
•After initial forays for
riches, Spanish government
officials brought some order,
class and caste distinction,
and Catholicism to the
empire
•Later, the French,
without much support
from the Crown, settled
parts of North America.
•They main trade was that
of _______
•The French lived and
worked more
cooperatively with the
Native Americans to trade
with them as well as
convert them to
___________
•Began to venture to North
America in the latter 15th c. in
search of the mythical
_______ __________, a
short route to Asia
•One reason for the delay
was the __________
Reformation, in which Henry
VIII broke from the Catholic
Church
•_________ I settled the
religious debate and
established the _________
Church
•The English conquest of
__________ was used as a
testing ground for theories of
colonial rule
An Unpromising Beginning:
Mystery at Roanoke
ROANOKE
Sir Walter Raleigh tried
and FAILED
Multiple Choice 1
 1.
The peopling of America was made possible
some 30,000 years ago because of

A. a long period of global warming
B. the domestication of horses
C. new canoe technology
D. bitter intertribal wars in Asia
E. the onset of the Ice Age

Answer: E




Multiple Choice 2
 2. The first migrants to the New World came from
 A. Western Europe
 B. Asia
 C. Africa
 D. Australia
 E. Southwest

Answer: B
Multiple Choice # 3
 3.
Columbus originally was determined to prove
that

A. A westward water route to China existed
B. the world was not flat
C. the continents of North and South America existed
D. The lost continent of Atlantis was actually part of South
America
E. the world was smaller than scientists believed at the time

Answer: A




Multiple Choice # 4
 4. Geographically, the French claimed and settled
 A. the southwest
 B. the Atlantic seaboard
 C. the Mississippi Valley and Canada
 D. Brazil
 E. the Southeast

Answer: C
Multiple Choice # 5
 5.
What 16th c. European upheaval had a profound
impact upon England’s settlement of the New
World?

A. the Crusades
B. the War of the Roses
C. the Hundred Years’ War
D. the experience of the Marian exiles
E. the Reformation

Answer: E

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

FRQ
 Describe the effect of European exploration and colonization
on African and Native American cultures. How did each
group react to these confrontations of societies?


Although the reasons varied by nation, all European nations’ desires
for exploration revolved around three central themes. Those themes
were the quest for gold and spices, the desire to spread Christianity,
and a desire to utilize new technologies. This then had a huge impact
on all three continents. Each continent had negative and positive
consequences.
Positive consequences included trading of crops between continents
thus stabilizing the diets and nutrition of each continent. Another
positive consequence was the exchange of and growth of cultures
through diffusion. Negative consequences were African slavery,
annihilation of Native American populations and cultures and the
damage of two continents’ ecosystems.
New World Experiments:
England’s 17th c. colonies
CHESAPEAKE:
DREAMS OF WEALTH
Virginia
Joint Stock company (namely the London
Co) built Jamestown. Experience trouble
because of a hostile environment
Maryland
Sir George Calvert and son
Cecilius (the Lords of Baltimore)
acquired a royal charter to set
up Maryland
Saved by John Smith who established
military order. London Co. also sent
more people to populate the colony
Tobacco as a commercial crop was the
key to eventual success.
House of Burgesses established the
first gov’t in the Americas
The second Lord Baltimore
insisted on religious toleration
Reinventing England in America
Pilgrims
First went
to Holland
John Winthrop
Massachusetts
Bay Colony
Democratic Town
Meetings
Religious
Dissent
Anne Hutchinson/RogerWilliams
New
Hampshire
Connecticut
New
Haven
Rhode
Island
Diversity in the Middle Colonies
New York
•Originally New
Netherland
•Settled by Dutch,
Finns, Swedes,
Germans, and
Africans
•England wrested
the colony from the
Dutch and renamed
it New York
•Diverse and huge
area-meant
bureaucratic
problems for the
Crown
New Jersey
•Originally a
proprietary colony
owned by Lord
Berkeley & Sir
George Cateret
•Split when
Quakers bought
land there
•Never really
prospered like NY
•Struggled with
discord and
political conflicts
Pennsylvania
•Quakers settled in
Pennsylvania
•Quaker theologyeveryone possessed
an “inner light” that
offered salvation
•William Penn
tried to establish a
complex society
based on Quaker
principles
•Colony promoted
aggressively
welcoming people
of all faiths and
nationalities
Deleware
Planting the Carolinas and
The Founding of Georgia
Carolinas
Georgia
Settled by the
English
Utopian Vision
Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of
Shaftesbury
Wealthy families from
Barbados
N.
Carolina
S.
Carolina
1729
General James Oglethorpe
Debtors prison from
London
Struggled in the early years
Multiple Choice #1
 1.
Unlike Virginia, Maryland was established

A. as a commercial center
B. as a frontier outpost to secure the area from the French
C. by French Huguenots
D. as a religious sanctuary for persecuted Catholics from
England
E. by a commercial trading company

Answer: D




Multiple Choice #2
 2.
The major difference in the founding of the colony of
Georgia was






A. it was a royal colony in which the king paid the governor’s salary
B. religious differences between England and its colonists
C. an act of aggression and defense from the Spanish
D. the colony was not heavily populated by natives
E. All of the above were differences between all of the rest of the
colonies and Georgia
Answer: C Georgia became a royal colony after it’s founding.
Choice A is not correct because the question asks about the time the
colony was founded. When Georgia was founded, it was feared that
the Spanish would attach S. Carolina. Carolinians took hold of
Spanish land to build that buffer.
Multiple Choice #3
 3.
The main staple of the Carolinas’ economy by
the close of the 17th c. was






A. cotton
B. rice
C. tobacco
D. timber
E. indigo
Answer: B The geography of S. Carolina was conducive for
rice production. However, it did not become a staple until
after 1690
Multiple Choice #4
 4.
The Plymouth Colony was ultimately absorbed
by which colony?

A. Maryland
B. Pennsylvania
C. Virginia
D. Massachusetts
E. Deleware

Answer: D




Multiple Choice #5
 5.
Anne Hutchinson’s skillful self-defense at her
trial before the Bay’s magistrates was ruined by

A. her affinity for the dictum of works
B. her claim of personal revelation
C. her reliance on the Scriptures
D. her rejection of free grace
E. the fact that she was female

Answer: B




The revelation was tantamount to heresy
FRQ
 Compare and contrast the English colonies of the Chesapeake
with their counterparts at Massachusetts Bay. What were
their similarities and their differences?
 Massachusetts Bay colonies were established as refuges. The
first colonies were refuges from religious persecution in
England. Then ultimately, the other colonies were
established as refuges from the Bay colonies.
 The Chesapeake colonies may have originally been refuges
from religious persecution. These colonies established
themselves as heterogeneous colonies that led to cultural
diversity. This diversity affected the political, cultural and
economic development of the colonies
Putting Down Roots:
Opportunity and Oppression in Colonial Society
SOCIAL ORDER IN THE 17TH C.
Early settlers
•Grouped into
families-more
stable base
•Population grewincrease in human
longevity
•Open spaces/pure
drinking
water/cool climate
helped retard the
spread of disease
and promoted good
health
Town and Church
Women
•Family foundation •Lacked economic,
political and legal
•Family was also
rights
the basis for
educating children •Contributions
were essential for a
•As towns grew,
successful
they were required household
to open schools
supported by local •Worked on family
taxes
farms and
managed the home
Colonials
•Social groups:
•Economic groups:
•Provincial gentry
•Yeoman
•Indentured
servants
•Most northern
colonists were
YEOMAN farmers
The Challenge of the Chesapeake Environment
Family Life
Economy
•Not favorable for survival
•Tobacco shaped society
•Contagious disease & contaminated
drinking water
•Great planters controlled estates and
the labor of indentured servants or
slaves
•Most colonists arrived alone
•Freeman formed the largest class
•Imbalance between the number of men
and women
•Cities/towns slow to develop
•Childbearing was extremely dangerous
•Social mobility hard to attain
Race and Freedom in British America
Africans
11 million
Thought to be
barbarous and heathens
Whites drew up slave
codes
African responsedeveloped their own
unique African
American culture
Creole
Rise of a commercial empire
Mercantilism
Regulatory
policy-increase
exports,
decrease
imports, and
grow richer at
the expense of
other European
states
Navigation Acts (beginning in
1660)
Board of
Trade
Oversee colonial
affairs
Limit competition
Shipping guidelines and a list of
enumerated goods that could flow from
the colonies to England
Colonial Factions spark political revolt, 1675-1691
Bacon’s
Rebellion
(1676)
Salem Witch
Trials (1692)
King Philip’s
War (1675)
The Glorious
Revolution
Jacob Leisler
John Coode
Multiple Choice #1
 1.
In _________, charges of witchcraft caused
considerable turmoil in the late 17th c.

A. Salem
B. London
C. Dedham
D. Boston
E. New York

Answer: A




Multiple Choice #2
 2.
Puritans viewed which of the following as
essential to their New England commonwealth?

A. strict adherence to personal hygiene measures
B. a flexible form of colonial administration
C. a healthy family life
D. the rapid creation of an urban society in New England
E. honest public officials

Answer: C




Multiple Choice #3
 3.
In 1647, the Massachusetts legislature ordered
all townships with 15 or more families to ______
and support with local taxes

A. provide police services
B. establish fire departments
C. hire a doctor
D. elect a mayor
E. open an elementary school

Answer: E




Multiple Choice #4
 4.
The most important difference between the New
England and Chesapeake colonies was






A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
found in their different forms of agricultural production
the Chesapeake’s much higher mortality rate
based on the differences between their respective proprietors
the Chesapeake’s much greater emphasis on the family
their different religions
Answer: B All of the answers are plausibly correct. However, the
key phrase in this question is “most important difference” The
mortality rate retarded the growth of the Chesapeake Bay region.
Multiple Choice # 5
 5.
British authorities based their colonial
commercial policies on the theory of

A. feudalism
B. monopolism
C. federalism
D. mercantilism
E. republicanism

Answer: D




FRQ
 Compare and contrast social and economic life in 17th c
New England with that of the Chesapeake colonies
 New England social and economic life centered around
the concept of church first. Once the religious obligation
goes away, the individual is safe. The resources in this
region really affect this idea. These colonies also have
difficulties because of the homogeneous nature. When
someone objects the person becomes ostracized.
 The heterogeneous nature of the Chesapeake colonies
allow for worship as one sees fit. This then enhances a
viable economy.
Experience of Empire
18th century America
Scotch-Irish
•Arrived in great
numbers in the
18th c
Germans
•They combined
the 2nd largest
group of nonEnglish settlers
Convicts
Native
Americans
•Comprised a large •Migrated to the
group of
western
immigrants
backcountry and
joined existing
•Many were more
•Between 1715 and confederacies of
interested in
•First came for
1775, some 50000 Indian tribes
improving their lot religious toleration convicts were
rather than finding
shipped to
•The Indians
religious freedom
•then soon came
America from
interacted, traded
(think of “Joseph” for material gains Britain to be
and compromised
in Far and Away)
employed as
with Europeans as
•Mostly settled in
indentured
much as possible
the middle
servants
colonies, especially
Pennsylvania
Spanish borderlands of the 18th c
What
happened?!
•Spanish outposts in North America
grew very slowly
•Spanish colonials exploited and
enslaved Native Americans
•Settlements lacked the resources for
sustained growth
Impact of European ideas on American culture
Urban Populations
remained small, but
grew quickly.
American cities were
trading ports
Americans accepted
and followed many of
the ideals of the
European
Enlightenment
Ben Franklin was
the true 18th c
American rep. He
became the symbol of
material progress
American
indeptedness
increased dramatically
after 1690 after
Americans imported far
more commodities than
before.
Economic
Transformation
England remained the
most important
trading partner for the
colonies
Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies
 The Great Awakening had a profound impact in
colonial America and cause colonists to rethink their
basic assumptions about church and state
institutions
 It brought a profound infusion of evangelical
exhortations and revival spirit
 Preachers like ________ and __________ vividly
depicted the horrors of hell to captivated audiences
in an effort to restore religious vitality.

The movement swept the colonies through the work of
_________ preachers
Clash of political cultures
English
American
•Divided political power between the
monarch and his council of advisors
•Colonists attempted to recreate
British-style institutions
•Two chamber Parliament, each group
providing a “check” on the ambitions of
the others
•Legislative assemblies helped offset
the ineptitude of royal governors
•Reality: vulnerable to corruption
•Commonwealthmen observed that
many of England’s rulers were corrupt
and institutions were no longer in
balance
•Colonial assemblies were often
aggressive in asserting power, as they
fought to protect the rights of American
colonists
Century of Imperial War
King
William’s
and Queen
Anne’s Wars
King
George’s
War
Resulted in
little change in
territorial
control
Ben
FranklinAlbany Plan
Proposed a most ambitious plan
for common colonial defense and
western expansion
Revealed the
capability of
America colonial
forces in waging
war against the
French
The Seven
Years’ War
Showdown for
N.American
supremacy 17561760. English
prevailed
Multiple choice #1
 1.
The largest group of white, non-English
immigrants to the colonies were

A. the Dutch
B. the Germans
C. the Swedish
D. the Scotch-Irish
E. the French

Answer: D




Multiple Choice #2
 2.
_________ was the most important
embodiment of the Enlightenment in America.

A. Jonathan Edwards
B. Ben Franklin
C. John Locke
D. Isaac Newton
E. Thomas Jefferson

Answer: B




Multiple Choice #3
 3.
Which of the following wars between England
and France had the greatest political and economic
impact on colonial America?

A. King William’s War
B. Queen Anne’s War
C. King George’s War
D. the Seven Years’ War
E. the War of the League of Augsburg

Answer: D




Multiple Choice #4
 4.
What did the Great Awakening, intercolonial trade,
and the rise of the colonial assemblies have in common?






A. they created disdain for England
B. they created a rebellious spirit in America
C. they exacerbated the problems of an already divided citizenry
D. they helped create imperial rivalry between England and France
E. they all contributed to a growing sense of shared identity among
the colonists
Answer:
E
Multiple Choice #5
 5.
________ was responsible for authoring the
Albany Plan

A. Ben Franklin
B. Jonathan Edwards
C. John Locke
D. Isaac Newton
E. Thomas Jefferson

Answer: A




FRQ
 Discuss the ways that the Anglo-American economic
relationship changed during the 18th century.
Further, discuss what impact those changes had
upon the colonial economy
The American Revolution: From Elite Protest
to popular revolt, 1763-1783
Supreme Authority: King George
III, and Parliament
“No Taxation without Representation” became the American
motto while seeking freedom from England’s revenue taxation
American ideology:
heavy religious and
moral components
based on the Great
Awakening and John
Locke
Eroding the Bonds of Empire
Grenvill
e
insisted
Amer
pay for
Brit
troops
Britain
transferred
troops to Boston
Opposition
to Britain’s
Stamp Act
Passed the
Townshend
Acts-set up
Admiralty
Courts
Boycott
effected by the
Sons of
Liberty
English repealed
it but maintained
Parliamentary
Sovereignty
Confrontation
arose resulted
in the Boston
Massacre
Acts repealed
except for
the Tea Act
Boston
Tea
Party
ensued
Steps toward Independence
Coercive
Acts
Continental
Congress-55
American delegates
Shots heard
“round the
world”
Lexington
Concord
A Second
Continental
Congress
(1775)
Thomas
Paine
“Common
Sense”
Fighting for Independence
American
English
 1776-George Washington’s army
 1777-Burgoyne’s army fell
suffered serious defeats in NY
and NJ
 1778-dug in at Valley Forge
 American colonists dug in again
and won a final victory in
Yorktown
 American peace delegation (B.
Franklin, J Adams, J. Jay) would
negotiate a very successful treaty
gaining independence, favorable
boundaries and important
fishing rights
in Saratoga, persuading the
French to offer an alliance
with America
 British Southern strategy
let loose a fury
 Loyalists-those colonists
still loyal to the crown
would bring social disorder
Multiple Choice #1
 1.
England passed the Coercive Acts in response to

A. the colonial boycott of the Stamp Act
B. the American victory at Saratoga
C. the Boston Tea Party
D. the Declaratory Act
E. the Tea act

Answer: C




Multiple Choice #2
 2.
The tensions leading to the Boston Massacre
were caused by

A. widespread British murders of American leaders
B. Parliament’s repeal of the Stamp Act
C. the Boston Tea party
D. the presence of several thousand British soldiers in Boston
E. anger at Charles Townshend

Answer: D




Multiple Choice #3
 3.
The pamphlet, _________, presented
justification to Americans for their break with Great
Britain

A. Common Sense
B. The Prince
C. the Declaration of the Rights of Man
D. Treatise on Government
E. American Crisis

Answer: A




Multiple Choice #4
 4.
The American victory that brought about the
French alliance occurred at

A. Trenton
B. Yorktown
C. Breed’s Hill
D. Philadelphia
E. Saratoga

Answer: E




Multiple Choice #5
 5.
The radical American group which first emerged
during the Stamp Act crisis was known as

A. the Loyalists
B. the Federalists
C. the Democratic Republicans
D. the Sons of Liberty
E. Oliver’s Raiders

Answer: D




FRQ
 Discuss the relationship between England’s internal
political problems and the loss of its colonial empire
in America.