Exploration and
Colonization of America
1607-1754
By: Sommer Falgowski, Brett Perkins,
Christina Mapa, Colin Roberts, Joe
Kleshick, Robbie Aitken, Matt Lee and
Kelly Liska
Index
Politics and
Government
Social, Cultural,
Religious and the
Arts
Finance and the
Economy
International Affairs
Literary Elements
Works Cited
Focus Questions
Why Our Era was
Special
Politics and Government
By: Colin Roberts and Robbie Aitken
Berengia
• Berengia: An area between Alaska and Asia,
when this area was frozen it was a connected
piece of land.
Spanish Exploration
• Conquistadors: Spanish explorers who seeked to claim land with gold and
silver.
• They first explored the Caribbean region. They went up through Mexico.
• In 1519, Hernando Cortes led an army into the America mainland. He did
this to claim land in the name of Spain.
• After destroying the Aztec’s capital, Cortes started plans for a new colony
“New Spain”. The capital would be Mexico City.
• Spanish settlers in Americas were mostly men and were known as
peninsulares. Marriage between peninsulares and native women were
common. Their offspring were called mestizos, people of mixed Spanish
and Native American descent.
• Spanish forced natives to work in systems called Encomiendas. However in
1542, the Spanish monarchy abolished it in efforts to increase fair
treatment. In its place Spain adopted the use of African American slaves.
Spanish Exploration
• Another explorer, Juan Ponce de Leon
explored what is now Jacksonville.
• In honor of the Spanish holiday “pascua
florida”, Juan Ponce de Leon named the land
he found “la Florida”.·
French Exploration
• French were more interested in spreading the
Catholic religion and gaining money rather than
settling in America.
• French claimed the entire Mississippi Valley for
France, naming it Louisiana in honor of King Louis
XIV.
• French colonists became fur traders.
• The French colonists developed friendly
relationships with the Native Americans.
• Native Americans trapped the fur and the French
traded goods with them in exchange for the fur.
Joint Stock Company
• Spanish colonies were funded by Spanish ruler
but unlike the Spanish colonies the English
were funded by joint stock companies. These
companies were made up of several investors
who pool their wealth to support a colony. If
these investors did well then the investors
gained more wealth.
The Jamestown Settlement
• In 1607, thirteen years before the Pilgrims landed
in Massachusetts, a group of 104 English men
and boys began a settlement on the banks of
Virginia’s James River.
• They were sponsored by the Virginia Company of
London, whose stockholders hoped to make a
profit from the resources of the New World. The
community suffered terrible hardships in its early
years, but managed to endure, earning the
distinction of being America’s first permanent
English colony.
Bacon’s Rebellion
• A rebellion in Virginia against Sir William
Berkeley, for lowering the price of tobacco,
raising taxes and not being able to defend his
own town against Indians.
House of Burgesses
• During the 1610s, the small English colony at Jamestown was
essentially a failure.
• Fearful of losing their investment, the officers of the Virginia
Company in London embarked upon a series of reforms designed to
attract more people to the troubled settlement.
• They began by ending the company monopoly on land ownership,
believing that the colonists would display greater initiative if they
had an ownership position in the venture.
• Company officials also made justice in Virginia more predictable by
adopting English common law as the basis of their system, which
replaced the whims of the governor as the final voice on legal
matters.
Theocracy
• A form of government in which a god is
recognized as the state’s supreme civil ruler.
• However other variations may appear such as
a state in which the state is ruled by divine
guidance or a state ruled by officials who are
regarded as divinely guided.
Royal Colony
• A colony under direct control of the king, or a
governor chosen by the king.
• Kings would do this to gain financial control
over colonies. In later years these colonies
would cause distress with settlers, and
reforms would be made to the control of
power.
William Penn
• William Penn was a Quaker who established a
Quaker colony in Pennsylvania.
• Penn used the money owed to him by King
Charles II to trade in for American land.
• Here, he established a colony run on Quaker
principles of equality, cooperation and
religious freedom.
Ben Franklin (1706-1790)
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Began to write for his brothers newspaper, The New England Courant, the first
newspaper of Boston
Ran away from his home and found work as an apprentice printer in Philadelphia
In 1729, he bought the Pennsylvania Gazette
In 1733, he started publishing the Poor Richards Almanac. Almanacs were printed
annually in this era and many people enjoyed his lively writing
Franklin helped launch:
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Library Company in 1731: nations first subscription library (exists today)
American Philosophical Society in 1743 (exists today)
Pennsylvania Hospital in 1751: helped treat the sick (exists today)
Philadelphia’s Union Fire Company
Philadelphia Contribution for Insurance Against Loss by Fire (exists today)
Had invented the Franklin Stove, but in the 1750’s, he became famous for his kite
experiment that verified the nature of electricity and lightning
Franklin was elected to the Second Continental Congress and helped to draft the
Declaration of Independence and in 1776, he signed it.
Colonial Charters
• European Governments had the right to
govern and control the economies of colonies
overseas
• England had colonial charters in America, as
well as France and Spain
• All three of these countries ruled from over
sea’s
Social, Cultural, Religious, Science, and
the Arts
By: Christina Mapa and Kelly Liska
Indentured Servants
• Indentured servants were usually adult whites
who were coming to America (usually
immigrants) under three classes: the
freewillers, people that were forced, captured,
enticed to go and convicts.
Puritans (City Upon A Hill)
• John Winthrop said that the puritans must be
like a city upon a hill (for all to acknowledge
and wonder) and to build a city a perfect godgoverned city.
Plymouth Colony
• Created in 1620 it was the second permanent
English colony in North America.
• Most of its population was made up of
Separatists.
• Although the colony was never very wealthy,
the people were happy enough being ignored
by the British officials.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
• Established in September 1630 by John
Winthrop and other colonist.
• This port town of Boston became their capital.
• It also brought puritan and non-puritan
settlers alike flocking.
• It absorbed the Plymouth Colony in 1691.
Salem Witch Trials (1692-1693)
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A series of trials held for the purpose of exposing and abominating witchcraft.
Thousands of people were accused and imprisoned. The punishment for being
found guilty of witchcraft was a hanging.
Those who refused to confess were killed by being crushed by two heavy rocks.
Women who claimed to be pregnant were not hung until after they gave birth.
The mass hysteria was brought on mainly by superstition and religious beliefs. The
people of this time were either ignorant to the truth or uneducated, leaving the
only explanation for extraordinary events as the supernatural work of the Devil
and witches.
When families where accused of practicing witchcraft, their lands where left
untended, resulting in a large amount of abandoned territory.
The Salem Witch Trials are important history because the families of the convicted
were forced to go on as though nothing had happened. Many had nothing to
return to. This effected the economy and a strong sense of distrust spread
throughout the country.
Anne Hutchinson
• Led religious discussions stating that every
person was enlightened by the holy spirit if
they are true believers.
• This was controversial because she said
worshipers needed neither the church nor its
ministers.
• Anne was banished and went to Rhode Island
with her followers.
Separatists
• Puritans from England, who did not agree with
the Anglican Church and chose to create
independent congregations.
• Known today as pilgrims, they fled from
religious prosecution to Holland and then to
America. The majority of Colonist was
Separatists.
Roger Williams
• Called an extreme separatist for his
controversial views.
• He stated that the settles had no rightful claim
to the land unless the settlers purchased it.
• He also believed in Freedom of Religion.
Holy Experiment
• Penn thought of his colony as a “Holy Experiment” which
would be a place without a landowning aristocracy.
• Every adult male settler was given 50 acres of land and the
right to vote. The government had a representative
assembly and freedom of religion.
• Capital city of Philadelphia, “City of Brotherly Love”.
• Quakers believed that God’s spirit was inside everyone;
therefore, any person was allowed to speak during the
meetings
• Quakers were plainly dressed, had no ranks, and embraced
pacifism by opposing war and refusing military.
Great Awakening (1730-1760)
• The first great awakening was a spiritual renewal that
spread across the American Colonies, mainly New
England
• It began in England (Church of England was a key
cause), and was then brought to America
• Colonists realized they had religious authority rather
than the church
• The great awakening mainly “woke people up” and
realized they all wanted freedom from the British
• Although having the same religious views, all agreed
they needed freedom from England
Finance and Economy
By: Brett Perkins and
Sommer Falgowski
The Navigation Acts
• The Navigation Acts were a series of laws that helped
create an economic boom for the English and colonies.
They were passed by the English Parliament that
restricted a colony’s trade to only England.
• England and the colonists benefited from the
Navigation Acts. No country could trade with the
colonies unless goods were shipped in English or
colonial ships.
• Ships had to be operated by at least three-quarters
colonial or English. Certain products were exported
only to England.
• Almost all goods had to pass through English port.
Cash crops
• In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is
grown for profit.
• Cash crops are what gave America success
during the Industrial revolution. Cash crops
like coffee, wheat, tobacco, corn, and cotton
were all exported to European countries and
around the world and created a booming
economy for the New World.
Slavery
• Slavery was looked upon as indentured servants, similar to those
white. In 1685, slave entered a new southern vocabulary.
• Tobacco planting is much to due with the success of the slave era.
Because of tobacco, more hands were needed and therefore more
blacks were shipped over (paid in food).
• Not only blacks were enslaved but millions of Native Americans
were also taken from tribes when weak from disease or protection.
At one point in the 1730’s, 25% of slaves were native Americans.
• By the mid seventeen hundreds, slave revolts become a common
thing and new laws are put forth. By 1751, Virginia is 40% slaves
and the other colonies 20%
Head-Right System
• Granted land to anyone who paid for their
own passage to America.
• Each colonist received 50 acres of land under
this system.
• The system helped wealthy people obtain
large land grants when they brought many
people with them.
International Affairs
By: Matt Lee
Dominion of New England
• The Dominion of New England was a large
colony that expanded from southern Maine to
New Jersey.
• King James II created the Dominion of New
England to make the colonial governments
more obedient.
• The Northern colonies were managed under a
single ruler in Boston.
Roanoke
• Roanoke was a colony founded in the late 15th century
that was ill prepared to face the cruelties of the new
world.
• They depended on local Indians for food and shelters
by kidnapping and bullying them, although this was a
great mistake.
• When the colony ran out of supplies, 15 men were left
behind. 3 years later upon return to Roanoke, the men
were missing and never heard from again.
• Mysteriously the only thing left was the word croatan
carved on a post.
Pequot War
• In 1637 in Connecticut, the Pequot nation
decided to take a stand against the colonists.
• About 90 colonists and hundreds of other
native tribes attacked a Pequot fort and
almost wiped out the tribe.
Salutary Neglect (1607 to 1763)
• Long-term British policy of preventing American voices to
be heard through representation.
• This was in place to ensure the obedience of American
colonies to Great Britain.
• The English didn’t involve themselves in the local rulings of
the new colonies and in return for that independence, the
Americans supported Britain.
• This policy changed after the Seven Year’s War when Great
Britain increased control against the wishes of the colonies.
Ex demanding taxes and enforcing trade restrictions.
• This event was significant because it proved that the new
American colonies could strive to survive over time.
Mercantilism
• Mercantilism is the theory that all countries
compete to obtain the most gold and silver. The
ultimate goal is self-sufficiency.
• The British interest in colonies was inspired by
Mercantilism. According to Mercantilism, any
wealth flowing from the colonies to another
country would cost the home country.
• Mercantilism made countries restrict their trade
to create a more favorable balance of goods to
the country.
Triangular Trade
• The Triangular Trade involved the trading of slaves,
crops and manufactured goods between three regions:
West Africa, Caribbean and American.
• Some complications arose such as maximizing the
storage of slaves, disease, and arriving ‘in season’.
• Slaves were taken from Africa and sold in the
Caribbean or the Americas.
• This was an important event in history because it
increased the number of workers for the plantations
and varied crops typically grown in America. Ex
molasses
Middle Passage
• The Middle Passage was a cycle of trade, starting
from Europe and ending with the Americas.
• Ships departed Europe and went to Africa to
trade goods for captured slaves. The slaves were
then transported and sold for raw materials,
which were sent back to Europe where it all
started.
• The significance of the Middle Passage was
hugely economical. For the countries involved in
the trade, needed materials were earned and
used to improve their stability.
Literary Elements
By: Joe Kleschick
Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
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Jonathan was a pastor in Massachusetts
Known to be the greatest philosopher
Enrolled at Yale at 13 for his unusual intelligence
In the mid thirties, the great awakening swept through
New England
• His sermons were so powerful, they left people
speechless. About 10% of New England was converted
• Edwards made everyone’s perspective of God bigger
and better. They hoped in sharing God’s glory and no
longer feared death
Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672)
• Considered to be the first American poet
• Married to Simon Bradstreet, who was a son to a
Puritan minister
• They came to American in 1630
• She spent much time writing about her husband
while he was traveling as well as reading to and
teaching her children
• One of her books, "The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung
Up in America, By a Gentlewoman of Those
Parts", was published in 1650 by her brother in
law
Phillis Wheatley
• Phillis Wheatley was a slave turned poet in the late 17th
century.
• She was taught to write by the daughter of her owners
• Back then women were not published, especially blacks
• Phillis' popularity as a poet both in the United States and
England ultimately brought her freedom from slavery on
October 18, 1773.
• She presented her poetry to General Washington in 1776
and was a strong supporter of independence during the
Revolutionary War.
• First African American to publish a book
John Smith
• An adventurer who was a member of the
Virginia Company. The Virginia Company was a
group of merchants who were interested in
founding an English colony. With Smith’s help
this small English colony survived.
Color of the Wind
Lyrics
You think I'm an ignorant savage
And you've been so many places
I guess it must be so
But still I cannot see
If the savage one is me
How can there be so much that you don't know?
You don't know ...
You think you own whatever land you land on
The Earth is just a dead thing you can claim
But I know every rock and tree and creature
Has a life, has a spirit, has a name
You think the only people who are people
Are the people who look and think like you
But if you walk the footsteps of a stranger
You'll learn things you never knew you never knew
Have you ever heard the wolf cry to the blue corn moon
Or asked the grinning bobcat why he grinned?
Can you sing with all the voices of the mountains?
Can you paint with all the colors of the wind?
Can you paint with all the colors of the wind?
Come run the hidden pine trails of the forest
Come taste the sunsweet berries of the Earth
Come roll in all the riches all around you
And for once, never wonder what they're worth
The rainstorm and the river are my brothers
The heron and the otter are my friends
And we are all connected to each other
In a circle, in a hoop that never ends
How high will the sycamore grow?
If you cut it down, then you'll never know
And you'll never hear the wolf cry to the blue corn moon
For whether we are white or copper skinned
We need to sing with all the voices of the mountains
We need to paint with all the colors of the wind
You can own the Earth and still
All you'll own is Earth until
You can paint with all the colors of the wind
Focus Questions
How was the founding of America the result of three great
Cultures/People colliding?
Spain, France and Britain collided when America was
founded. Each country wanted to be the most powerful, so
colonizing America was their answer. Spain looked to find
gold and silver in the New World. France hoped to spread
the Catholic religion and gain money from fur trading. The
English sent many colonists there to settle and build a
colony in the New World. It was a race to colonize, and as
they each came to settle, they brought pieces of their
culture to America and influenced who settled there and
their way of life.
Why was the colonization of the East Coast of North
America mostly a British phenomenon?
During early exploration times, the Spanish Armada
ruled the seas. They started exploring in the south in
Mexico. From there, the Spaniards worked their way up
into Southwestern, and Southeastern America.
However by this time, Britain’s naval forces
overpowered the Spanish Armada. Allowing Britain to
explore, and colonize America without worry of being
attacked. While Spain was exploring the south, the
French were exploring and setting up colonies in the
Mississippi Valley. This left the east coast of America
the closest and easiest part of the new world to
explore and colonize for the British.
How did the colonial regions differ regarding their
reasons for settlement, relations with the first
Americans, culture and the development of their
communities?
Each colonial region had different reasons for settling where they did and had
different relationships with the settlers that were there before them. Colonists
in the south settled there because the ideal warm temperatures were perfect
for farming year round, so it was economically beneficial to all new settlers.
The Native Americans that had previously lived there had already been living
a peaceful life, but the colonists would not compromise and kicked the Native
Americans off their land. In the North, people went there to escape religious
persecution, and live the life like the Puritans. Aside from the religious aspect,
New England was manufacturing goods and trading items with the Europeans so
the economy was striving. Since the colonists were new to the land, they took this
as an opportunity and learned from the Natives so they could prosper. The MidAtlantic region was a new land and when people came there to settle they were
satisfied with what was there because there was easy access to ports and fishing.
Identify any unusual situations or particular
uniqueness that was reflected in the various
regions during the Colonial Period?
During the Colonial Period, an unusual event happened in Virginia at Roanoke
Island. English settlers came to this Island to settle, but realized they did not
have enough supplies to survive. So the captain went back to England, but was
not able to get back to Roanoke until three years later due to England’s war with
Spain. When he returned, the whole colony had disappeared. There are theories
that the English settlers joined the Native Americans on the Island, or that they
had been killed off, but no one knows for sure what happened to the colony on
Roanoke Island. Another unusual event took place in Salem, Massachusetts. A
group of Salem girls accused a West Indian slave woman, Tituba, of witchcraft.
More and more townspeople were accused of being witches. Those accused of
being witches blamed others of being “witches” to save themselves. These false
accusations caused hysteria in Salem. Many others were said to have dealt with
witchcraft as well, and the whole scandal led to many being hanged or stoned.
Why did colonials begin to move toward
more interest in independence?
The colonists were moving towards independence because they were not happy
with the British rule. After the French and Indian War, the British government
stationed 10,000 troops in America to control the Native Americans and French.
However, the colonists thought this army may turn against them. Also, the cost
of troops in America was expensive on the British budget. Britain borrowed large
amounts of money that nearly doubled its national debt weakening the colonies too.
In addition, British policies angered colonists. The colonists were being
unfairly taxed and had to follow laws from the British Parliament. One such law
was the Sugar Act. The Sugar Act limited the colonist’s trade and forced colonists
to go to vice-admiralty courts rather than colonial courts. Also, governors were
sent from England to enforce the Parliament’s laws, leaving the colonists with no
options or freedom. The colonists did not object to British rule because they still
considered themselves British. However, being in a new land with new people.
They realized that they must separate from the British and rule themselves
What was special about the
Exploration & Colonial Era?
The Exploration & Colonial Era (1607-1754) was the beginning of a whole New
World. The discovery of the New World started a race to colonize this unique land.
Conquistadors from Spain, fur traders from France and colonists from England flocked
to America to establish their own colony. These colonies were unique and interesting
in their own way. “New Spain” set up by the Spanish was a vast land with Mexico City
as its capital. Here, they built churches and homes while trying to find gold and silver.
The French claimed the Mississippi Valley as their colony. In their land, the French
hoped to obtain fur from the Native Americans and gain wealth. Also, they looked to
convert Native Americans to follow their Catholic religion. The English set up many
colonies along the east coast. Joint Stock Companies invested money into colonies that
were successful. People settled to start a new life. For example, William Penn came to
America to establish a colony based on the Quaker religion that would be open to all
religions. Another culture, the Native Americans, was affected during this era. Europeans
came and claimed land that Native Americans belong to no one. They were given
diseases and faced many troubles with the Europeans. Lastly, Africans were taken to the
New World and used as slaves. Therefore, this era was a time filled with people from
many different lands coming to use and settle a new land creating a whole New World.
Works Cited

AMSTUD ppt - americanstudiesprecolonial