https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=a2YEUhHFMHY
Review of Nazis rise to
Power
12/10 & 12/11 ESTABLISHMENT AND CONSOLIDATION OF NAZI RULE
Overview
~ Hitler
ensured that the Nazi Party gained control over gov’t at both
central and local level
~ Banned trade unions and other political parties
~ Made extensive use of propaganda to promote his dictatorship but
also relied on repression of his enemies
~ Tried to bring all areas under state control / ARMY to powerful for
him to challenge immediately and did not assume complete control
until 1938
~ Political, ideological, and religious hostility remained
Timeline
1933 Mar: Enabling Act – Law for
terminating the suffering of the people –
giving Hitler dictatorial powers for 4 years
1934 Jan: law is passed for the reconstruction
of the state, placing federal states under Reich
governors
Apr: Law for the Restoration of the
Professional Civil Service is passed
Jun: Night of the Long Knives: the SS kill SA
leaders and other opponents of Hitler
May: all trade unions dissolved
Aug: Hindenburg dies & Hitler becomes head
of state – Fuhrer and Reich chancellor
Jul: Concordat is concluded with Pope
whereby the Catholic Church is banned
from political activity in return religious
freedom will be upheld
Nov: Elections are held in which the Nazi
candidates win 92% of vote
Army swears a oath of loyalty to Hitler
1938 Feb: Army reorganized to increase
Hitler’s control
How did Hitler consolidate his position and
create a one – party state between March &
July 1933
~ KPD (German Communist Party) been banned under the presidential decree
of Feb. 1933 after the Reichstag Fire
~ SPD banned June 22 1933
~ DNVP (right wing nationalist party) lost its role once it became part of the Nazi
coalition
~ Catholic Centre Party followed the Concordat with the Pope – dissolution of
the party & agreed to recognize the Nazi regime – In return state promised not
to interfere in the Catholic Church
~ July 14 1933 – Law Against the Establishment of Parties – made it criminal
offense to organize any party outside the NSDAP
Local Government
Lander - name for separate states within Germany
Took over through
◦ Forced resignation
◦ Seized buildings, docs, and supplies
Loyal Nazi commissioners were appointed
Law for the Restoration and Professional Civil Service (April 1933)
Trade Unions bannedreplaced w/German Labor Front
Single-Party State Made Legal
One party made legal by establishment of ‘Law to Ensure the Unity
of Party and State’
However Hitler allowed parallel institutions to develop rather than
create undiluted party rule = competition within state between
different agencies, & sometimes different branches of the Nazi party
itself
Structuralists Historian Martin Broszat and Hans Mommsen believe
that this situation was unintentional and resulted from Hitler’s
disinterest and neglect
Hitler’s Storm Troopers
SA – Sturmabteilung – Brown Shirts – Original
Parliamentary wing of the Nazi Party –
Hitler used the SA to destroy the communist
movement when seeking power - Used to maintain
control @ speeches, parties & intimidating Jewish
citizens
Led to problems w/ the military.
Rumors of a military coup; SA became disposable
Night of Long Knives
Heinrich Himmler and Hermann Goering spread rumors of a planned coup by the SA = Hitler takes
action
Ernst Rohm (leader of SA) and other SA members murdered (85 – 200 individuals)
◦ Included Nazi Gregor Strasser who attempted to split the party in 1932
◦ Kurt von Schleicher former chancellor killed
◦ Von Papen was put on house arrest
◦ Event helped confirm Hitler’s authority
◦ Purge left Hitler’s SS to assume dominance in Germany while Hitler gained support of the army’s
commanders
◦ When Hindenburg died in August 1934 all members of the armed forces swore a personal oath of
loyalty to Hitler = Hitler combined chancellorship and presidency
Propaganda
Propaganda was skillfully used by
the NSDAP in the years leading up
to and during Adolf Hitler's
leadership of Germany (1933–
1945). National Socialist
propaganda provided a crucial
instrument for acquiring and
maintaining power, and for the
implementation of their policies,
including the pursuit of total war
and the extermination of millions of
people in the Holocaust.
Propaganda
◦ Hitler believed masses (whom he
had little respect for) could be won
over easily through regular exposure
at schools, towns, workplace, leisure
◦ Censorship (Party controlled 2/3 of
private newspapers)
◦ Radio – Reich Broadcasting
Corporation
◦ Slogan (“Heil Hitler”)
◦ Movies
◦ Decorations on buildings
◦ Stamps / Posters
Anti – Bolshevik Poster
Repression
Even before Hitler became the official leader, his
chancellorship had led to the death of 30,000 communist
(arrest of 300,000)
SS: The Security Service
◦ Highly trained and elitist Aryan organization with extensive
powers as a military force and as political force
◦ Ran concentration camps
Gestapo: State Secret Police force
◦ Root out and intimidate potential opposition
Strong Dictator – View of Historians Karl
Bracher & Hugh Trevor-Roper
Absolute Control:
◦
◦
◦
◦
Ideology
Education
Economy
Army
Lack of Opposition from 1934:
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
No union
Control over media
One-party state
Control over courts
Control over Civil Service
Bargains with army, church, & big business
Control of a powerful system:
◦ Police
◦ Gestapo
◦ SS
A far reaching propaganda machine:
◦ Press
◦ Radio
◦ All forms of art and culture
Weak Dictator – View of Hans Mommsen, Ian
Kershaw, Jeremy Noakes, and Martin Broszat
Hitler’s personality
◦ Lazy
◦ Erratic
◦ Easily bored and uninterested in detail
◦ (especially economics)
Opted out of government
◦ Set ministers against one another with
overlapping duties
◦ Allowed ministers and mayors to give
different decisions and compete for
influence
◦ Permanent confusion over planning,
especially in war years
Nazi programs were left unfinished
◦ Plans for economic recovery not
carried through fully
◦ Suggested Germany might be ready
for war in 1942 – 43 in the 1937
Hossbach memorandum
◦ Rearmament narrowly based and no
war economy until 1942
Remainder of class….
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Establishment and consolidation of Nazi rule 2014