HIGHER HISTORY
INTRO
Welcome!
 Miss Bain- Britain & Migration and Empire
 Miss Glynn- Germany and extended essay
What you will need TO SUCCEED
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3 notebooks (BIG ONES)
One for each topic (Britain/Germany/Migration & Empire)
Hard work
ASK FOR HELP!
Course outline
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Britain- Miss Bain- essays
Germany- Miss Glynn-essays
Migration and Empire- Miss Bain -source skills
EXTENDED ESSAY- Miss Glynn- your topic- BIG essay.
You will write one essay per issue (6 per topic) for each teacher as practice.
WHERE YOUR MARK COMES FROM:
Extended Essay-Written BEFORE the exam. Done in SQA Exam conditions. Deadline
set by SQA. NO LEEWAY. Topic of you choice write a 30mark essay in 1hr 30mins.
You will have picked the question and practiced this in advance.
Exam- In the exam you write 2 essays (one British, one German then do source
questions on migration and Empire).
HIGHER
GERMANY
ISSUE 5
THIS TOPIC
EXAMINES:
The reasons behind Germany’s post war democratic
government only lasting 14 years
The reasons why the Nazis rose to power so quickly
These 2 things happened at the same time
WHAT WE WILL STUDY
ISSUE 5- An evaluation of the Nazis coming to power.
(How did the Nazis gain power).
Factors include:
1. resentment of the Treaty of Versailles,
2. Weakness of the Weimar Republic,
3. economic problems,
4. the appeal of the party AND the role of Hitler himself,
5. weakness and mistakes of opponents (naivety of
politicians and lack of effective opposition).
NOTES, QUOTES AND
KEY PLAYERS
Definitions: Reichstag- German parliament. Abdication- When the king or queen
gives up their throne and power. Armistice- ceasefire. Freikorps- ex-soldiers who
had returned from war to find themselves out of work who offered their services to
private armies. SPD- Social Democratic Party of Germany, (German:
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschland) Coalition government- When the
government is made up of two or more parties coup-sudden appropriation of
leadership or power; a takeover
Quotes- Make a page in your notes dedicated to quotes. When you see
an appropriate quote copy this into your book so you have a list of quotes.
Key Characters- Make a page in your notes titled “Key Characters”when a new person is mentioned write down their name and who they
were so that you can reference this if you get stuck e.g Friedrich EbertSPD (socialist party) leader, and leader of the Weimar Republic.
GERMANY AT THE
END OF WW1
-FAILURE AT THE END OF THE WAR, STARVATION/GERMANY NOT
INVADED ETC
-ARMISTICE
-TOV
-WEIMAR REPUBLIC
-
REVOLUTION FROM ABOVE.
-
EBERTS LACK OF CHANGES
-
Lack of support,
-
Left wing/right wing.
CLIP 2434 establishment of the Weimar republic.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/2434.html
GERMANY AT THE END OF WW1
NOTES
Answer questions in FULL sentences so you have revision notes.
1. Get a copy of McKichan’s textbook. Read p117 from “In October
1918” (Halfway down the page) to the bottom of p. 118. Use this
information to help you copy the timeline on p.130 of your textbook
(BLUE) P. 86 (GOLD) and add in extra information. At home add in
pictures to each event to make more memorable in your revision.
(Use the above Definition box to help you).
2. Copy the three points on p.131 of your textbook (BLUE) under the
heading “The Weimar Republic – Born at a bad time”. P.87 (GOLD)
top section.
Cameron, Henderson and Roberson’s book (black cover) p. 124 under
the heading Revolution from above.
1. Why did Hindenburg and Ludendorff want a ‘revolution from above’?.
Who was blamed for Germany’s defeat in the war?
END OF WW1 NOTES
Read p. 132 of blue textbook (p.87 gold textbook)
1.
How had Ebert been used to making decisions?(who did he try to get agreements
with?) How did this affect his leadership style?
2.
Who were the extreme left wing of the socialist party and why had they split from
the SPD?
Read p133 of your textbook (p.89 gold textbook)
1.
Give examples of the ways in which Ebert failed to utilize the opportunity for change
given to him.
2.
Some say that the Weimar Republic was not a big enough change as it left some of the
old rulers in power. Read the defence of Ebert’s actions in the quote boxes. Do you
agree that Ebert was right to encourage a more moderate rather than revolutionary
change?
Read p. 134 of your textbook (p.90 gold textbook) and your own knowledge.
1.
Copy the issues which threatened the security of the new republic. (only in Blue)
2.
Which party did Karl Liebkneckt and Rosa Luxembourg belong to?
3.
What was the Spartacist Rebellion and when did it happen?
4.
Who was called in by the government to help defeat this rebellion?
5.
How did the result of the Spartacist Rising lead to a permanent division between the
USPD and majority socialists? How might this help Hitler?
6.
Why is the Weimar republic known as the Weimar Republic?(only in Blue)
GERMANY AT THE
END OF WW1
Work in your groups to create a mind map describing
Germany at the end of WW1, use the pictures to help
you.
FACTOR1
TOV
THE TREATY OF
VERSAILLES
You should know these terms in detail by now. If you don’t, you’d better look them up:
It was a Diktat
AlsaceLorraine
Anschluss
War Guilt
banned despite
Clause
others having
OTHERS
‘self
determination’
TERRITORIAL
TERMS
Polish
Corridor
Loss of
Colonies
Army =
100,000
Reparation
= £6,600
FINANCIAL
MILITARY
million
Rhineland
demilitarised
No tanks or
submarines
Only 6 small
naval ships
Loss of industrial areas such as
the Saar crippled the German
economy
FACTOR 1- THE T O V
TOV- FACTOR 1
TREATY OF VERSAILLES (ToV) Read your textbook p. 134- 137 or gold 90-94
1.
Who were the ‘November Criminals’? Why were they called this?
2.
Where did the signing of the ToV take place?
3.
What happened to Alsace and Lorraine?
4.
What happened to the Saar coalfields?
5.
What land was given to the Poles? And the Belgians?
6.
What was the Polish corridor? Copy this diagram of the Polish corridor
7.
How many German speakers now lived in Czechosolvakia?
8.
What happened to Germany’s colonies?
9.
The ToV was called a “Diktat” Dictated peace as Germany could not
negotiate the terms. Copy this note
10. State the military terms of the ToV.
11. What was Article 231 and why did Germans hate it?
12. Find out how much Germany had to pay in Reparations. (use your index).
HOW THIS HELPED THE
NAZIS RISE TO POWER
• Hitler used anger of ToV to undermine the Weimar Republic
•Germans referred to it as ‘Diktat.’
•Germans humiliated.
•Reparations- recipe for disaster. Resented being controlled
by the Reparations committee.
•Land- only 13% but loss of resources, people and land
angered the population.
•Article 231- wasn’t entirely Germany’s fault..
•Military losses- Stripped Germany of her pride. Claimed
they were unable to defend themselves.
•The Nazis would denounce the treaty.
CONCLUSION QUESTION
HISTORIANS
White and Hadley- Germans “were outraged by the treaty”
(of Versailles).
McGonigle “There is little doubt that the stigma of the socalled ‘November Criminals’ hung like a shadow over the
period of Weimar Germany”
Preuss “The Criminal madness of the imposed Versailles
settlement was a shameless blow… The Reich constitution
of Weimar was born with this curse upon it”
Preuss “The burdens and cruelties inflicted by the Allies
upon an innocent Germany… undermined democracy… and
facilitated the rise of Hitler”
Hiden “The Versailles treaty certainly did not doom the
Republic from birth, but it did create particularly
troublesome dimensions to existing internal conflicts and
contradictions”.
HIGHER TIMED PARAGRAPHS
(never use ‘I’)
 (Factor) was VERY/NOT VERY/QUITE important in (topic).



EXPLAIN WHAT FACTOR IS. (give evidence i.e
quotes/facts/figures etc)
This was important because…….
Historians disagree on the importance of the Tov
HISTORIAN thinks it was very important “_____” which
mean (explain in own words) however HISTORIAN thinks it
was less important “_” explain in own words.
Conclusion Question:
How important was hatred towards the Treaty of Versailles in the Nazi Rise to
Power? (Hitler vowed to reverse the ToV).
FACTOR 2
WEAKNESS OF
WEIMAR REPUBLIC
FACTOR 2 WEAKNESS OF THE
WEIMAR REPUBLIC.
/
THE LEGACY OF 1918 19
Condemned for signing the hated Treaty of Versailles
Many believed the German army had been ‘stabbed in the
back’ by the ‘November Criminals’
Historians agree that the treaty facilitated Hitler’s rise to
power as these theories were seized on and highlighted by
Hitler
TOO GOOD A CONSTITUTION?
A Constitution are the rules which govern an
organisation or country. The Weimar constitution
was said to be “the most perfect democracy on
paper”. In reality it was quite different. It’s
problems were:
•The voting system – Proportional Representation
•Coalition Government
•Article 48 and the personal power of the
President
THE VOTING SYSTEM
Proportional Representation (P.R.) led to there never being a
clear winner to provide strong leadership
Instead – numerous parties had to do deals and form
coalition governments to run the country – these are
inherently weak by nature.
These coalitions found it difficult to agree on anything
During the fourteen years of the Weimar Republic, there
were twenty different coalition governments. The longest
government lasted only two years.
This political chaos caused many to lose faith in the new
democratic system.
SMALL PARTIES GIVEN POWER
A more destructive feature of PR was to enable small
minority parties representation
A good thing for democratic minority parties but a
dangerous thing when those parties are extremist and
authoritarian – allowed them a ‘foot in the door’
ARTICLE 48 AND THE POWER OF THE
PRESIDENT
Article 48 gave the President power to rule by decree (by
himself) in times of emergency – without the approval of the
Reichstag.
However, this power was used all too often between 191933 when coalitions collapsed
What impression did this give the public?
The excessive use of Article 48 played a significant part in
the public’s loss of confidence in democracy
Looked as if there was a constant ‘state of emergency’ and
democracy not working
It also set a precedent for successive leaders to follow
It conditioned the German people to be ruled by one person
NOTES ON THE
WEAKNESS OF THE
WEIMAR REPUBLIC.
WEAKNESS OF THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC.
Structural Weaknesses- Read p.137-139 of your textbook (blue) or
p.94-95 (Gold)
1. Under the new Weimar Constitution who could vote?
2. What was the Reichstag?
3. What is Proportional Representation (PR)?
4. What powers did the President have?
5. Name two problems with PR.
6. Copy the table on p.138 blue p.95 gold
7. A negative effect of Article 48 is given on p.138, what is this? (can
you see any problems this might cause in the future?)
8. Copy the following notes:
NOTES ON THE WEAKNESS OF THE
WEIMAR REPUBLIC. CNTUD
Proportional Representation.
During the fourteen years of the Weimar Republic, there were twenty different
coalition governments. The longest government lasted only two years. This political
chaos caused many to lose faith in the new democratic system
Small Parties Given Power
A more destructive feature of PR was to enable small minority parties
representationA good thing for democratic minority parties but a dangerous thing
when those parties are extremist and authoritarian – allowed them a ‘foot in the
door’
Article 48
Article 48 gave the President power to rule by decree (by himself) in times of
emergency – without the approval of the Reichstag. However, this power was used
all too often between 1919-33 when coalitions collapsed. The excessive use of
Article 48 played a significant part in the public’s loss of confidence in democracy.
Looked as if there was a constant ‘state of emergency’ and democracy not working.
It also set a precedent for successive leaders to follow. It conditioned the German
people to be ruled by one person.
Conclusion Question.
•
Write a paragraph explaining how the weakness of the Weimar Republic might
have helped Hitler gain power. Include information on PR, Article 48, lack of
experience / weak govt (see your work on Ebert).
HIGHER TIMED PARAGRAPHS





CONCLUSION QUESTION.
WRITE A PARAGRAPH EXPLAINING HOW THE WEAKNESS OF THE WEIMAR
REPUBLIC MIGHT HAVE HELPED HITLER GAIN POWER. INCLUDE INFORMATION
ON PR, ARTICLE 48, LACK OF EXPERIENCE / WEAK GOVT (SEE YOUR WORK ON
EBERT).
(Factor) was VERY/NOT VERY/QUITE important in (topic).
EXPLAIN WHAT FACTOR IS.
GIVE DETAIL AND EXAMPLES
You must include:
• The voting system – Proportional Representation
• Coalition Government
• Article 48 and the personal power of the President
This was VERY/NOT VERY/QUITE important because…….
(give evidence i.e quotes/facts/figures etc)
(never use ‘I’)
SAY WHETHER IT IS LESS/MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE
TOV
OPPOSITION TO THE
WEIMAR REPUBLIC
Some historians suggest the Weimar Republic was ‘born with a
curse upon it’ and lacked any support
EXTREME LEFT WING- COMMUNISTS- SPARTAKISTS UPRISING
RIGHT WING- NATIONALISTS- KAPP PUTSCH
EXTREME RIGHT WING- DICTATORSHIP- NAZIS- BEER HALL
PUTSCH.
ESTABLISHMENT- Teachers, Lawyers, Judges
ENEMIES ON THE LEFT
To some on the Left, the Republic represented the
‘old’ views rather than providing a radical solution to
Germany’s problems - most of the Kaiser’s officials
remaining in power.
To extreme groups like the Spartacists they were
disillusioned by the new republic
There were a number of attempts by the extreme
Left to overthrow the republic even from its outset:
in particular the Spartacist Revolt 1919.
SPARTACIST REVOLT 1919
The Spartacists (Communists) were the most extreme Left wing
group that broke away from the SPD during the war
In a revolt led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, the
Spartacists led a violent coup and seized key buildings in Berlin
Friedrich Ebert, leader of the SPD, was forced to use the old
Establishment, in particular the Friekorps, to brutally put down the
rebellion and murder its leaders. The Freikorps were the ex soldiers
who had returned from war to find themselves out of work
The implications for the Republic were severe:It became obvious that the Republic
relied on others to protect and save
it
The Left Wing of German politics,
already divided, would never unite
again meaning that there could be
no strong opposition to Hitler
ENEMIES ON THE RIGHT – THE
NATIONALISTS
The ‘Right’ hated Weimar as well. This group included
many former soldiers. They hated:
• the Treaty of Versailles and the govt who signed it
• the idea of having a republic rather than a monarchy
• the country being run as a democracy – had no
experience of it
Also as nationalists and patriots, they ‘blamed’ the
Weimar politicians for all Germany’s problems
The Kapp Putsch, 1920, was an attempted right wing
coup by the nationalists to overthrow the Treaty of
Versailles and the republic
THE KAPP PUTSCH 1920
Right-wing journalist Wolfgang Kapp led a group of
Freikorps soldiers to take control of Berlin in March
1920. This was a very powerful group who were
against the new republic
Without the option to use the army for support to
put down the revolt (the army refused to fire on
former soldiers), the Republic was forced to rely on
ordinary people to beat the revolt.
A general strike was called to make Berlin an
unworkable city, thus forcing Kapp and his men to
retreat.
Again, it became obvious that
the Republic relied on others
to protect and save it.
It highlighted that there was a
large and powerful section of
German society who preferred
the ‘old Germany’.
THE MUNICH PUTSCH
1923
Opposition from the extreme Right wing – the Nazis
Reaction to the government ending passive resistance in the Ruhr
and re-starting reparations payments
Seen as backing down and a betrayal
Hitler and the Bavarian government (a region in Germany) plotted
to overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right wing
government, first in Munich, the capital of Bavaria, and then in
Berlin
The coup was crushed by the army and Hitler was imprisoned for
5 years
This revolt, although
unsuccessful, brought the Nazis to
the public’s attention. It also
Again, it became obvious that the
showed Hitler that he would have
Republic had enemies
to use legal means to achieve
power
FURTHER ENEMIES
Civil servants, judges, teachers
and other key figures in Weimar
Germany were a legacy of the old
Establishment – loyal to the old
regime
Their actions further undermined
the Republic:
• Teachers taught students to be
against the Republic
• Judges took lenient actions
against Right Wing law breakers
Again, it became obvious
that powerful groups of
people opposed Weimar
Weimar
is bad
This opposition and
undermining of democracy
was ‘constant’ and very
damaging
TASK- IN YOUR GROUP RESEARCH
THE DIFFERENT THREATS TO THE
REPUBLIC.
Within your groups make sure you research each of these and create a mind map
which the rest of your group should copy.
BROOMAN(blue book)
•
Spartacists Revolt p. 6/7
•
Communists Revolt p.8/9
•
•
Kapp Putsch p.14/15
Munich Putsch p. 20/21
For extra info read the following pages :
P.34 “Attempts to overthrow the Weimar Republic” of the Geddes “Higher History
Revision Guide” (blue and black cover book)
p.127 of the Cameron, Henderson and Christie (black cover Growth of Nationalism)
book from “Enemies on the Left- Spartacist Revolt” to the top of p.129.
p. 138 of blue textbook from “Although the government…” to the top of p. 139. or gold
p.88-90
P.140 of blue textbook from “Hoping to capitalize….” Until Hitler’s quote on p.141
Opposition
Group
Action Taken
When
Outcome
The
Communists,
the Extreme
Left
Who were the group?
What did they do?
Date
Were they successful?
How were they crushed?
What message did this uprising
give to the Republic?
The
Nationalists,
the moderate
‘Right’ Wing
The Nazis, the
Extreme Right
The
Establishment
Read the following pages and notes to help you:
P.34 “Attempts to overthrow the Weimar Republic” of the Geddes “Higher History Revision Guide” (blue and
black cover book)
p.127 of the Cameron, Henderson and Christie (black cover Growth of Nationalism) book from “Enemies on
the Left- Spartacist Revolt” to the top of p.129.
p. 138 of blue textbook from “Although the government…” to the top of p. 139. or gold p.88-90
P.140 of blue textbook from “Hoping to capitalize….” Until Hitler’s quote on p.141
Quotes
•
Joll comments that Weimar suffered from ‘it’s total rejection by important sections of the
German people’
• Hiden ‘To vote for Hitler was for many a rejection of the existing system
• McGonigle “weakness of the Weimar republic contributed to Nazi success”
• Simpson- “The Weimar Republic was born out of the external defeat of the German
Empire and the internal collapse of its system of government, It is an open question
whether the Weimar Republic could ever have overcome the disadvantages which
attended its birth.”
• McKichan “ A Republic nobody wanted”
• Hiden “Although the time seemed ripe for a remodelling of society and a clean break wit
the imperial past, German socialists were neither fully prepared for revolution nor united.
• McGonigle “There is little doubt that the stigma of the so-called ‘November Criminals’
hung like a shadow over the period of Weimar Germany”
• Eliot “The Weimar Republic collected enemies right from its birth”
• Elliot “The scales were heavily weighted against the Republic”
• Elliot “ re Weimar Republic “The mental image created for a great many Germans was of a
weak and treacherous government which was preventing Germany from becoming a first
rate power again”
HAND OUT AVAILABLE
CONCLUSION QUESTION:
• What difficulties did the Weimar Republic face? (summarise
the opposition it faced and the weaknesses of its structure).
• How important was this in the Nazis rise to power? Was it
VERY/NOT VERY/QUITE IMPORTANT? Explain your reasons
why. Try to argue if you think it was more or less important
than the Resentment toward the ToV.
FACTOR 3
ECONOMIC
DIFFICULTIES
COULD THE REPUBLIC HAVE
SURVIVED?
Despite all of the problems it experienced, it is debatable
whether the Republic would have survived
Some historians think it could have had it not been for the
this factor is
therefore essential.
severe economic difficulties of the time –
Remember people usually vote for what
DIRECTLY affects them.
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
The people of Germany could forgive their government
for many things but a weak economy was not one of
them. Germans prided themselves on their economy since
the days of the Zollverein- more about this later.
To the ordinary person in the street this means a job,
money in their pocket, and their standard of living
If these things deteriorate then a government risks
losing support
€
£
$
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
French and Belgian troops invaded the Ruhr to
directly take reparation money in the form of coal
The government asked the workers to go on strike –
‘passive resistance’
However, it was the Weimar Government’s decision to
print more money to pay the striking Ruhr workers
while little national wealth was being created that
really created the problem.
This caused hyper-inflation when money lost its value
Almost overnight the life savings of millions of
Germans became worthless and by November 1923
German money had no value.
The people blamed the government
RUHR CRISIS
Germany missed a reparations
payment
SO
The French Invaded the Ruhr
SO
The German workers went on
strike
SO
The government printed paper
money
SO
There was Hyperinflation
SO
There were Communist and
Nationalist riots.
The 1923 crisis began when Germany
missed a reparations payment. This
situation spiralled out of control and
once again the German people were
unhappy and in financial difficulty, so
uprisings occurred throughout the
country.
WHAT WAS THE EFFECT OF HYPERINFLATION
The German people blamed the
government who were failing to
cope with the situation
In desperate times people look
for an alternative
The alternatives this time were
the extremist parties who also
blamed the government and
offered extreme solutions to the
problems
To see what effect this
economic crises had, it’s
necessary to look at the support
for parties at the time
WHAT DID THE RESULTS SHOW?
During difficult economic times, people turned away from the
government moderate parties (SPD)
People turn to the extremist parties instead (KPD and the NSDAP)
During stable times the reverse is true – people trust and support
government moderate parties and support them and are not
interested in extremism
The NSDAP did well immediately after the Rhur crisis gaining 6.5%
of the votes as did the KPD gaining 12.6%. The SPD lost support
during this time of economic hardship only gaining 20.5%.
When stability returns the SPD do well again and gain 29.8% in
1928 while the NSDAP slump to only 2.6% and the KPD only 10.6%
OVERALL,
THE
NAZIS RELIED ON ECONOMIC
CRISES FOR THEIR SUCCESS
Stability Returns
• During the
Stresemann era
Germany had a period
of recovery and
prosperity.
• Extremist parties all
but disappeared as
Dawes Plan
Art & Music
support for the
adjusted
thrived
Democratic process
Reparation
increased
Locarno Pact
payments
accepted
and loaned
Rentenmark Germany’s
Germany
ended
Western
U.S. money
Hyperinflation border
Economic Problems
• In 1929 the Wall Street Crash in America meant
that loans to Germany agreed in the Dawes Plan
stopped and immediate repayment of previous
loans was demanded.
• Businesses shut down and unemployment rocketed.
The economic stability and trust created under
Stresemann was lost.
• Gustav Stresemann also died in 1929 but even if
he had lived it is unlikely he could have done much.
HISTORIAN’S VIEWS
Many suggest that economic crises were vital in the
success of the Nazis
Cameron, Robertson and Henderson all agree and assert
that during the Golden era
‘Streseman and his times denied the Nazi fire the oxygen
of misery and it was all but extinguished’
Fulbrook (who is a lady!) suggests Nazi success was
‘directly related to the growth of mass unemployment’
SUMMARY QUESTIONS
HYPERINFLATION-Read p. 138-141
Why was France looking for an excuse to ‘put Germany back in her place’ in 1923?
Why did the French and Belgians occupy the Ruhr?
What did the German government order as a result of the French and Belgian
occupation?
Copy the table on p. 139 (Gold p.96)
Copy this note. "On 1st November 1923 1 pound of bread cost 3 billion, 1 pound of meat:
36 billion, 1 glass of beer: 4 billion."
Copy the “Index of German Wholesale Prices” on p. 129 of the Cameron, Henderson and
Christie (black cover Growth of Nationalism) book.
RECOVERY p. 143
What were Gustav Stresemann's achievements?
Copy the two quotes at the top section of p.144 into your quotes page.
THE GREAT DEPRESSION p. 144
What was the cause of the Great Depression in 1929?
Make a note of the increase in unemployment after the Great Depression using Source
10.8 onp.146.
Read p.147. Copy the quotes
(Gold Textbook-read p.96-99 and borrow a blue book to copy notes on p. 147, borrow
blue to get quotes on p. 144)
SUMMARY NOTES
Word Bank- Hyper-inflation- Monetary inflation occurring at a very
high rate (the value of money goes down so prices go up).
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
HYPERINFLATION-------- (Ruhr Crisis)
RECOVERY----------------- (Stresemann)
WALLSTREET CRASH------------ (Great Depression)
The NSDAP did well immediately after the Rhur crisis gaining 6.5%
of the votes as did the KPD gaining 12.6%. The SPD lost support
during this time of economic hardship only gaining 20.5%.
When stability returns the SPD do well again and gain 29.8% in 1928
while the NSDAP slump to only 2.6% and the KPD only 10.6%
QUOTES
‘Streseman and his times denied the Nazi fire the oxygen of
misery and it was all but extinguished’ Cameron, Robertson and
Henderson
Fulbrook (lady!) suggests Nazi success was ‘directly related to
the growth of mass unemployment’
McKichan “ Hitler would almost certainly have remained on the
fringe of politics if it had not been for the Great Depression”.
Taylor “The effects of the Great Depression really brought Hitler
to power”
McKichan “In 1929 it faced a disastrous economic blizzard in
which much of what it had was blown away”.
Elliot “It was economic troubles which fertilised the seeds of
Nazism”
CONCLUSION QUESTION:
How important was economic instability in the Weimar
Republic in the rise to power of the Nazis?
1. STARTING SENTENCE
2. EXPLAN THE ECONOMIC INSTABILITIY ((Ruhr, Wall st
Crash)
3. How did this help Hitler?
4. How important was this? ARGUE YOUR POINT! Was it
more or less important that the other 2 factors? WHY!?!
FACTOR 4 APPEAL
OF THE NAZIS
Why did so many Germans vote
for the NSDAP in the elections of
1930 and 1932?
Hitler and the Fuhrer Principle
• Hitler was personally very popular and a
charismatic and powerful public speaker.
• He had fought in the German army during the
First World War and, although he had only been
a corporal, he was seen as a ‘man of the
people’. Much was made of this during the 1932
Presidential Election.
• Part of Nazi party philosophy was the ‘Fuhrer
Principle’ – namely the idea that there should be
one strong leader or Fuhrer. This appealed to
those who were disillusioned with the weak
Weimar coalitions and felt that democracy was
feeble and ineffective.
Quick solutions to economic
problems:
• The Nazis promised to provide
employment through rearmament and
conscription.
• Many of the Nazi promises on the
economy were vague but their ideas
appealed to those who had suffered during
the economic crises of 1923 and 1929.
Communism:
• The Nazis were vehemently anticommunist. They promised to destroy
communism and curb trade union power.
This was especially appealing to the
middle classes and those who feared that
communism may take Germany along the
same violent path as Russia. This was
probably the biggest factor in the Nazis
winning power as the KPD vote increased
after 1930.
State Socialism
• The NSDAP started off as the DAP, or
German Workers’ Party, so there were
socialist elements to their policies.
• The Nazis promised jobs and a fairer
share of national wealth.
• Hitler added ‘Socialist’ to the title of the
party in an attempt to give it a broader
appeal.
Foreign Policies
• The Nazis had an aggressive foreign policy,
designed to restore Germany’s power.
• They promised to overturn Versailles, re-arm,
and create a ‘Grossdeutschland’ incorporating
all German-speaking peoples into the Reich.
• These ideas were popular with most Germans.
• The Nazis promised to achieve Lebensraum ie
the expansion of German territory as far east as
the Ural Mountains in Soviet Russia, in order to
ensure the Reich had all the resources it needed
for self-sufficiency (or autarky), such as oil,
minerals and grain.
Racial Policies
• Nazi racial policies appealed to many likeminded Germans.
• The Nazis promised to get the ‘bank Jews’ off
the back of hard-working ordinary Germans, e.g.
farmers, shop-keepers, and small businessmen.
• Anti-Semitism was common in Germany at the
time, but not widespread enough to make this a
major vote winner for the Nazis.
Propaganda and Funding
• The backing of wealthy businessmen such
as Alfred Hugenburg was crucial in Nazi
electoral success. Hugenburg also owned
several newspapers and a chain of
cinemas, which helped publicise the Nazi
message.
• Nazi propaganda was also very effective
in getting the Nazi message across to the
electorate.
Appealed to all social classes
• Because of all of these policies and ideas the
Nazis did have broad appeal.
• Wealthy landowners and army officers desired a
‘Kaiser figure’ and therefore the Fuhrer Principle
was appealing.
• These people also supported the Nazis anticommunist stance, as did the middle-classes.
• Many of the working classes also supported the
Nazis. The KPD did well in towns, but the Nazis
did better in rural areas.
FACTOR 4- WIDESPREAD
APPEAL OF THE NAZIS
Only party to appeal to all social classes - rich and poor
Middle Class and businessmen gave huge support – through fear of Communism
Farmers promised fair prices for produce
Consumers offered lower prices for goods
Destruction of TOV and re-armament
‘Work and Bread’ for the unemployed
Offered something for everyone – contradictory policies
THE ROLE OF HITLER
Hitler’s oratory skills – many related to the words he spoke
He personally made powerful alliances to bolster the party - his
alliance with Hugenberg – cinema owner financed much of the Nazi
propaganda, allowed for widespread publicity of the Nazi message
His stance on strong government – refused to work with other parties
He personally offered a strong alternative to weak government – a
return to the days of the Kaiser with one strong leader
Cameron suggests that ‘He was the Nazi Party’s greatest electoral
asset’
CLIP 2440The role of Hitler's public appeal in the Nazi rise to power
Clip 2240
THE ROLE OF HITLER
QUESTIONS.
Read p. 142 of blue textbook. (p.100/101 in gold)
1. What was the original name of the Nazi Party?
2. How did Hitler come to dominate meetings?
Read p. 146- 149 of McKichan.
1. How was Hitler described by one of his superiors? (p.
146)
2. In what year did Hitler become party leader of the Nazi’s?
3. How was Hitler’s speech in 1929 described?
PROPAGANDA
Ministry of Propaganda set up - led by Goebbels - filtered into
every aspect of people’s lives
Cinema, radio, poster campaign, rallies – financed by businessmen
The first party to use propaganda so effectively
Cameron suggests that ‘The Nazis were among the first to
realise the persuasive power of this medium (cinema)’
Rothnie argues that ‘Never has any party prepared for power more
thoroughly than the Nazis during the period 1925-33’
PROPAGANDA Q’S
“We chose red for our posters, since it is vivid and was the colour that most aroused our
opponents. It forced them to notice and remember us.” Hitler- Mein Kampf
Read p. 147 & 148 (Blue) p109-110 (Gold)
1.
What does Jones argue? (need blue textbook for this)
2.
Why might farmers support the Nazi party?
3.
Why might consumers support the Nazi party?
4.
What were workers promised?
5.
What were businessmen promised?
6.
What was the army promised?
7.
Why might the middle class vote for the Nazis?
8.
What was the appeal of the Nazis to the unemployed?
9.
Who was the Propaganda Minister? What does the fact that the Nazi’s had a
propaganda minister tell you about how important they thought this could be in
persuading Germans of their views?
10. How do McKichan and Welch disagree about the effectiveness of propaganda?
11. List the different propaganda mediums used by the Nazis. How was Hitler able to
reach such as Mass audience?
For extra information see McKichan p. 158
QUOTES
Cameron suggests that ‘He was the Nazi Party’s
greatest electoral asset’ (RE Hitler)
Cameron suggests that ‘The Nazis were among the
first to realise the persuasive power of this medium
(cinema)’
Rothnie argues that ‘Never has any party prepared
for power more thoroughly than the Nazis during
the period 1925-33’
Kershaw “Hitler inspired millions”.
Hildebrand “The party was never returned to power
by a majority of the German people”
HAND OUT AVAILABLE
NAZI APPEAL
Why were the Nazis capable of
exploiting Weimar’s weaknesses?
Widespread appeal
of Nazi policies
Effective
electioneering
Effective
Propaganda
Strong paramilitary
activity
Hitler’s Appeal
Charisma of Hitler
Conclusion Q- How important was propaganda in the Nazi’s rise to power?
(Give detail on how it helped promote the Nazi cause and assess its
importance in comparison to other factors previously studied).
FACTOR 5- THE NAIVETY
OF POLITICIANS/ LACK OF
EFFECTIVE OPPOSITION.
FACTOR 5- THE NAIVETY OF
POLITICIANS/ LACK OF
EFFECTIVE OPPOSITION
NAIVETY OF POLITICIANS
In the political chaos created by the 1929
Depression, the Nazi Party gained 37% of
the vote in the July 1932 election.
Politicians such as von Papen and von
Schleicher felt they could ‘use’ the charisma
of Hitler to gain them popularity and power
and then leave him aside. They thought they
could ‘use’ him
They were wrong! They had persuaded
President Hindenburg to make Hitler
Chancellor as he led the largest party in
Germany - he was on his way to his legal
take over of power – he had been ‘invited’ to
be chancellor
LACK OF EFFECTIVE OPPOSITION
Divisions among those who supported the government
Lack of any effective party / parties to oppose the Nazis
SPD / KPD the only ones who could really form an opposition. However, they
refused to co-operate – therefore no effective left wing opposition
A general lack of experience with democracy
Lack of strong experienced politicians who could strengthen the republic –
Stresemann the only skilled one and he died in October 1929
Hiden suggests that the Nazis gained hugely from the dissatisfaction of people with
the government and Weimar politicians: ‘To vote for Hitler was for many a rejection
of the existing system’
The Reichstag fire: In February 1933, the German parliament, the Reichstag, was
burned down. The Communists were blamed. Hitler expelled the Communists from
parliament and enforced a state of emergency where all civic freedoms were
suspended (using Article 48). The Nazi party now had complete control of Germany's
army, its police force, its government and its economy. Hitler was in power
WEAKNESS AND MISTAKES OF OPPONENTS
(NAIVETY OF POLITICIANS AND LACK OF EFFECTIVE
OPPOSITION)
Read p. 149 of blue textbook (p.110-111 gold)
Why did the SPD and KPD fail to cooperate? (add in information about
the Spartakists revolt from your previous notes)
Naivety of Politicians
What kind of power structure did Hinderberg, von Papen and von
Schleicher want?
What do you think von Papen meant when he said “we have hired Herr
Hitler”?
Look back on your noes about Article 48. (p. 138) and read the
information below about the Reichstag fire. How could this power be
misused to get rid of democracy in Germany?
Copy the diagram on p. 145 (blue), p.105 Gold
Add this quote at the end of your timeline Hildebrand “the Party was
never returned to power by a majority of the German people” and this
Feuchtwanger “Hitler did not seize power, but was given it by a back
stage intrigue”
QUOTES
“….Hitler came to office in 1933 as the result, not of any
irresistible revolutionary or national movement …but as part
of a shoddy political deal with the “Old Gang” whom he had
been attacking for months past.” Alan Bullock
“Without the Depression, Hitler would not have been able to
build up mass support. However, without the help of rightwing politicians who thought they could use him for their own
ends, he could not have won power.” McKichan
Hildebrand “the Party was never returned to power by a
majority of the German people” and this
Feuchtwanger “Hitler did not seize power, but was given it by
a back stage intrigue”
CONCLUSION
QUESTION
How important was the mistakes of others as a
reason for the rise of the Nazi party to power by
1933? (explain how the mistakes of others helped
Hitler gain power and assess how important this
factor was).
ISSUE 5 SUMMARY
ISSUE 5 QUOTES- PUT THESE UNDER FACTOR HEADINGS
•
‘Streseman and his times denied the Nazi fire the oxygen of misery and it was all but
extinguished’ Cameron, Robertson and Henderson
•
Fulbrook (lady!) suggests Nazi success was ‘directly related to the growth of mass
unemployment’
•
Joll comments that Weimar suffered from ‘it’s total rejection by important sections of the
German people’
•
Cameron suggests that ‘He was the Nazi Party’s greatest electoral asset’ (RE Hitler)
•
Cameron suggests that ‘The Nazis were among the first to realise the persuasive power of
this medium (cinema)’
•
Rothnie argues that ‘Never has any party prepared for power more thoroughly than the
Nazis during the period 1925-33’
•
Hiden ‘To vote for Hitler was for many a rejection of the existing system
•
White and Hadley- Germans “were outraged by the treaty” (of Versailles).
•
McGonigle “weakness of the Weimar republic contributed to Nazi success”
•
McKichan “ Hitler would almost certainly have remained on the fringe of politics if it had
not been for the Great Depression”.
•
Kershaw “Hitler inspired millions”.
•
Feuchtwanger “Hitler did not seize power, but was given it by a back stage intrigue”
•
Hinde “The Versailles Treaty certainly did not doom the Republic from birth”
•
Taylor “The effects of the Great Depression really brought Hitler to power”
•
Pruess “Many Germans blamed the Allies for the weakness of democratic Germany”.
ISSUE 5 QUOTES CNTUD
Simpson- “The Weimar Republic was born out of the external defeat of the German Empire
and the internal collapse of its system of government, It is an open question whether the
Weimar Republic could ever have overcome the disadvantages which attended its birth.”
McKichan “ A Republic nobody wanted”
Hiden “Although the time seemed ripe for a remodelling of society and a clean break wit
the imperial past, German socialists were neither fully prepared for revolution nor united.
McGonigle “There is little doubt that the stigma of the so-called ‘November Criminals’ hung
like a shadow over the period of Weimar Germany”
Preuss “The Criminal madness of the imposed Versailles settlement was a shameless
blow… The Reich constitution of Weimar was born with this curse upon it”
Preuss “The burdens and cruelties inflicted by the Allies upon an innocent Germany…
undermined democracy… and facilitated the rise of Hitler”
Hinden “The Versailles treaty certainly did not doom the Republic from birth, but it did
create particularly troublesome dimensions to existing internal conflicts and
contradictions”.
McKichan “In 1929 it faced a disastrous economic blizzard in which much of what it had
was blown away”.
Hildebrand “The party was never returned to power by a majority of the German people”
Eliot “The Weimar Republic collected enemies right from its birth”
Elliot “It was economic troubles which fertilised the seeds of Nazism”
Elliot “Th scales were heavily weighted against the Republic”
Elliot “ re Weimar Republic “The mental imiage created for a great many Germans was of a weak and treacherous
government which was preventing Germany from becoming a first rate power again”
ESSAY QS
To what extent was the growth of the Nazi Party between 1919 – 33 due to the lack
of effective opposition?
How important was the leadership of Hitler in the rise to power of the Nazi Party
between 1919 – 33?
To what extent was the growth of support for the Nazi Party between 1919 – 33 due
to the lack of effective opposition?
To what extent were the economic difficulties experienced in Germany responsible
for the rise to power of the Nazi Party?
END OF TOPIC PRACTICE
TIMED PARAGRAPHS.
Use this time to PREPARE yourself for a timed paragraph on
the topic given to you.
You will then have 7minutes to write the paragraph.
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
•Germans referred to it as ‘Diktat.’
•Germans humiliated.
•Reparations- recipe for disaster. Resented being
controlled by the Reparations committee.
•Land- only 13% but loss of resources, people
and land angered the population. ( Imperialism
pre-1914)
•Article 231- wasn’t entirely Germany’s fault..
•Military losses- Stripped Germany of her pride.
Claimed they were unable to defend themselves.
•The Nazis would denounce the treaty.
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
Acceptance of Reparations made the
Republic appear weak.
Hyperinflation angered the middle classes
whose life savings were wiped out.
Dawes Plan and Young Plan- German
economic growth built on American loans.
Wall Street Crash- 1932- 6 million
unemployed, life savings wiped out.
IMPACT- ECONOMIC
PROBLEMS
Nazis promised to get rid of Versailles
and therefore reparations.
Economic issues caused widespread anger,
suffering and resentment. People were
looking for a strong, authoritative
government that would solve Germany’s
problems.
Many Germans who suffered during the
Depression ( ie: teachers whose wages
had been cut, ) were likely to vote for
extreme right wing parties. Answer=
Nazis
POLITICAL PROBLEMS
•Retention of old guard- Those in power supported the
Kaiser and not the WR.
•Too few political parties supported the Republic.
•WR- Accepted the Versailles agreement.
•Ebert- Groener Pact- Ebert sold out from the start.
•Spartacist Revolt- Use of Friekorps-Independent
Socialists never forgave Social Democrats. Socialist
now divided- LEFT WING NEVER UNITED OR
STRONG ENOUGH TO TAKE ON THE RIGHT WING.
•PR- encouraged small extremist parties. Led to
coalition governments.
•Weimar Republic weak, unstable.
•Nazis in contrast- organised, disciplined and had a
strong leader who would solve all of Germany’s
problems.
HITLER
•Great orator.
•Promised to make Germany great again.
•Involved in organisation- contrast of disorder of WR.
•Persuaded people to give backing to Nazi cause.
•Use of propaganda to maximum effect.
•Promised “All things to all men.”
•Vague policies to appeal to all.
•WR- lost war, betrayed Germans at Versailles,
accepted reparations- Nazis would rectify all these
wrongs.
•Return Germany to glorious past.
•Promised to make Germany great again.
•People were terrified of Communism spreading from
the West. The Nazis would stop the spread of
Communism.
MAKING THE MOST OF
OPPORTUNITIES
•Hitler used his trial for the failed Munich Putsch of 1923 to make
himself a national figure. He used the publicity to get his ideas
published in Mein Kampf, his autobiography.
•When social unrest increased, after benefits were cut in 1930, Hitler
used fear of Communism to get support from Hugenberg, an
industrialist who owned a chain of newspapers, and Thyssen, a steel
manufacturer. They, and other industrialists, formed the Harzburg
Front which helped finance the Nazi election campaigns in 1932-3 to
ensure the Communists were defeated.
•At the July 1932 election, the Nazis won more votes than any other
party. Hitler was offered political office in a coalition with two other
politicians, von Papen and von Schleicher. He refused. He would not
share power.
•After the November 1932 elections, Hitler refused the chancellorship
because President Hindenburg tried to limit his powers. When he
accepted the chancellorship in January 1933, he was one of only three
Nazis in a Cabinet of eleven. The Vice Chancellor, von Papen, thought
he could keep Hitler under control.
•The Reichstag fire- February 1933,. The Communists were blamed.
Hitler expelled the Communists from parliament and enforced a state
of emergency where all civic freedoms were suspended.
TIMED CONCLUSION
You now have to write a conclusion for the title “How
important was X in the rise of the Nazi’s to power?”
You may choose the named factor.
You have 10minutes to write this.
GOOD LUCK
YOUR PLAN
Propaganda + Nazis widespread appeal
The Role of Hitler + platform of Treaty of Versailles
Economic problems
The weakness of democracy (PR, Art 48, lack of experience
/ weak government)
Weakness / mistakes of Opponents + Lack of effective
Opposition

Higher Germany Issues 5 RG