Thermodynamics questions

# Thermodynamics questions

• term "thermodynamics" was first used in the publication of
William Rankine
• indicates that rate of heat conduction in a direction is proportional to the temperature gradient in that direction
Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction
• when a body is resistant to heat, it is called
Thermoduric
• boundary of a control volume, which may either real or imaginary
Control Surface
• best conductor of heat
Diamond
• amount of energy needed to change a given mass of ice to water at constant temperature
Fusion
• refers to the portion of the internal energy of a system associated with kinetic energies of molecules
Sensible Energy
• second law of thermodynamic, which state that no heat engine can have a thermal efficiency of 100%
Kelvin-Plank Statement
• second law of thermodynamic, which state that no device can transfer heat from cooler body to a warmer one without leaving an effect on surroundings
Clausius Statement
• if a system at chemical equilibrium is distrubuted by some stress, the system goes to a new equilibrium condition to relieve stress
Le Chatelier's Principle
• law that if a process can be written as the sum of several stepwise processes, the enthalpy change the total process equals sum of the enthalphy changes of various steps
Hess Law
• formulated the zeroth law of thermodynamics
R.H. Fowler
• coined the word "energy"
Thomas Young
• the amount of light output in lumens per watts of electricity consumed
Light Efficacy
• carnot cycle is composed of how many reversible processes
4
• processes involved in Carnot cycle
• heat transfer by mixing
Convection
• during adiabatic, internally reversible process, entropy is
Always Zero
• effects of viscosity of liquids
Laminar Flow
• invented the barometer
Torricelli
• random motion of particles suspended in a fluid is called
Brownian Motion
• formation of pockets of gas in a liquid
Cavitation
• volume of a definite quantity of dry gas is inversely proporional to pressure provided temperature remains constant
Boyle's Law
• bimetallic strip commonly found in home furnace thermostats uses
Thermal Expansion
• area of thermodynamics concerned with measuring of thermal properties
Calorimetry
• when water is warmed from 0 degrees Celsius to 6 degrees Celsius
Contract first then expand
• temperature when water and vapor are in equilibrium with atmospheric pressure
Steam Point
• terms refer to amount of heat needed to raise temperature of a unit mass of substance through one degree
Specific Heat
• Free Expansion Process
heat rejected is zerowork done is zeroheat supplied is zero
• temperature of gas measures the
Average KE of particles in gas
• produced mathematical theory of wave mechanics where solution to his equations involve assigning integers to different parameters
Edwin Schrodinger
• law of thermodynamics which leads to definition of entropy
Second Law
• as temperature goes 0, entropy approaches a constant
Third Law of Thermodynamics
• if you open the refrigerator door of a well insulated kitchen, the room will
Heat up
• the temperature of drops when they collide and combine without exchanging energy with their environment
Increase
• amount of heat required to raise one gram of water by one degree Celsius
Calorie
• has greatest influence on overall efficiency of conventional electric generating station burning fossil fuels
Steam temperature at steam turbine inlet
• energy of molecular motion in a gas
Temperature
• deposition of radiant energy as heat into an absorbing body
Insolation
• universe will be at the same temperature everywhere
Entropy Death
• laws of thermodynamics often invoked to discredit attempts at perpetual motion
Second Law of Thermodynamics
• some heat transfer occurs in a reversible polytropic process (true or false)
True
• operates the reverse of the heat engine
Thermal Pump
• property of a substance which remains constant if no heat enters of leaves the system
Entropy
• phenomenon of melting under pressure and freezing again when pressure is reduced
Regelation
• british thermal unit, or BTU is the amount of heat required to raise on pound of this material; one degree fahrenheit
Water
• part of a nuclear power plant that prevents thermal pollution of lakes or rivers
Cooling Tower
• heat is transferred in extra-terrestrial space by
• four cycle internal combustion automobile engine operates in this cycle
Otto
• a carnot cycle made to run backwards
Refrigerator
• internal energy of a perfect gas depends on
Temperature
• processes which occur without the addition or withdrawal of heat from surrounding
• in regions where fluid velocity is smaller, the pressure is higher, and vice versa
Bernoulli
• diffusion due to thermal motion
Effusion
• two different gases have same volume, temperature, and pressure and behave like ideal gases also has identical
Total molecular kinetic energy
• cycle which eventually return to first state of the first process
Series Cycle
• fixed quantity of mass selected for the purpose of study
Closed System
• not all energy received as heat by a heat-engine cycle can be converted into mechanical work, some are also rejected
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
• law states that total volume of a mixture of non reacting gases is equal to sum of partial volumes
Azamat's Law
• variable that is a function of enthalpy and entropy of the system
Gibb's Free Energy
• solubility of gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the solution
Henry's Law
• minimum amount of radioactive amterial needed to sustain a nuclear chain reaction
Critical Mass
• heat engine whose thermodynamic efficiency is greater than that of a carnot device using the same energy reservoir
Perpetual machine of the second kind
• reversible process used to form a carnot cycle
• area under the curve on a temperature-entropy diagram
Heat
• increasing the temperature of an ideal gas increases
Number of dissociaton products
• energy stored in a substance by virtue of the activity and configuration of its molecules and of vibration of atoms within molecules
Internal Energy
• known as total heat and heat content at various times in history and represents the useful energy of a substance
Enthalpy
• specific property is also
Intensive Property
• the quantity of the substance leaving the system is equal to the substance entering the system
Law of Conservation of Mass
• pressure of a given quantity of has is held constant
Charles' Law
• states that a constant pressure and temperature, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles
• refers to heat needed to change the temperature of the substances without changing its phase
Sensible Heat
• refers to amount of energy absorbed or released during phase-change process
Latent Heat
• refers to the transfer of energy between a solid surface and the adjacent fluid that is in motion
Convection
• defined as the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius
Kilocalorie
• what happens to the internal energy of water at reference temperature where enthalpy is zero
Becomes Negative
• entropy of all perfect crystalline solids is zero at absolute zero temperature
Third Law of Thermodynamics
• what should be the temperature of both water and steam whenever they are present together
Kirchoff's Law
• predicts the approximate molar specific heat at high temperatures from the atomic weight
Law of Dulong Petit
• ideal gas whose specific heats area constant
Perfect Gas
• state of a simple compressible system is completely specified by two independent intensive properties
State Postulate
• theory that heat consisted of a fluid, which could be transferred from one body to another, but not created or destroyed
Caloric Theory
• compare adiabatic process to an isentropic process
Both heat transfer is zero and isentropic is reversible
• the temperature at which the water vapor in the glue gas begins to condense in a constant pressure process
Dew Point
• developed third law of thermodynamics
Walther Nernst
• total volume of a mixture of nonreacting gases is equal to the sum of the partial volumes
Amagat's Law
• thermal inertia of a thermodynamic system is known as
Entropy
• at what temperature is celsius and fahrenheit numerically the same
- 40
• 1st law of thermodynamics
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed
• process that has no heat transfer