Theory of computation

2017-07-27T21:59:28+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Church–Turing thesis, Computable function, Gödel's incompleteness theorems, Primitive recursive function, Randomized algorithm, Recursion, Turing machine, Quantum information science, Decision problem, Flowchart, Halting problem, Nassi–Shneiderman diagram, Recursion (computer science), Self-reference, Post correspondence problem, Busy beaver flashcards Theory of computation
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  • Church–Turing thesis
    In computability theory, the Church–Turing thesis (also known as Computability Thesis, the Turing–Church thesis, the Church–Turing conjecture, Church's thesis, Church's conjecture, and Turing's thesis) is a hypothesis about the nature of computable functions.
  • Computable function
    Computable functions are the basic objects of study in computability theory.
  • Gödel's incompleteness theorems
    Gödel's incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system containing basic arithmetic.
  • Primitive recursive function
    In computability theory, primitive recursive functions are a class of functions that are defined using primitive recursion and composition as central operations and are a strict subset of the total µ-recursive functions (µ-recursive functions are also called partial recursive).
  • Randomized algorithm
    A randomized algorithm is an algorithm that employs a degree of randomness as part of its logic.
  • Recursion
    Recursion occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself or of its type.
  • Turing machine
    A Turing machine is an abstract machine that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules; to be more exact, it is a mathematical model of computation that defines such a device.
  • Quantum information science
    Quantum information science is an area of study based on the idea that information science depends on quantum effects in physics.
  • Decision problem
    In computability theory and computational complexity theory, a decision problem is a question in some formal system with a yes-or-no answer, depending on the values of some input parameters.
  • Flowchart
    A flowchart is a type of diagram that uses an algorithm, workflow or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows.
  • Halting problem
    In computability theory, the halting problem is the problem of determining, from a description of an arbitrary computer program and an input, whether the program will finish running or continue to run forever.
  • Nassi–Shneiderman diagram
    A Nassi–Shneiderman diagram (NSD) in computer programming is a graphical design representation for structured programming.
  • Recursion (computer science)
    Recursion in computer science is a method where the solution to a problem depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem (as opposed to iteration).
  • Self-reference
    Self-reference occurs in natural or formal languages when a sentence, idea or formula refers to itself.
  • Post correspondence problem
    The Post correspondence problem is an undecidable decision problem that was introduced by Emil Post in 1946.
  • Busy beaver
    The Busy Beaver Game consists of designing a halting, binary-alphabet Turing Machine which writes the most 1s on the tape, using only a limited set of states.