Signal transduction

2017-07-27T18:29:30+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true MAPK/ERK pathway, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Guanosine triphosphate, G protein, G protein–coupled receptor, Protein kinase A, Platelet-derived growth factor receptor, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Notch proteins, Chemokine, Cyclic ADP-ribose, Aripiprazole, Inositol trisphosphate, Low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family, Adenylyl cyclase, Ras subfamily, Phosphatidylinositol, Calcineurin, Active zone, Functional selectivity, Autoinducer-2, Retinal, Inositol trisphosphate receptor, Two-component regulatory system, Brexpiprazole, Adenophostin, RAB27, Node of Ranvier, Pertussis toxin, Casein kinase 2, STAT5, STAT protein, SH2 domain, Calreticulin, Extracellular signal–regulated kinases, Casein kinase 1, Prickle (protein), PHLPP, Phosphoinositide phospholipase C, Frzb, Hepatocyte nuclear factors, Tryptophan-rich sensory protein, Response regulator, Histidine phosphotransfer domain flashcards Signal transduction
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  • MAPK/ERK pathway
    The MAPK/ERK pathway (also known as the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) is a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell.
  • Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
  • Guanosine triphosphate
    Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.
  • G protein
    G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
  • G protein–coupled receptor
    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) which are also known as seven-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors, that sense molecules outside the cell and activate inside signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
  • Protein kinase A
    In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKA) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
  • Platelet-derived growth factor receptor
    Platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-R) are cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors for members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family.
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase
    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are protein kinases that are specific to the amino acids serine, threonine, and tyrosine.
  • Notch proteins
    Notch (DSL) proteins are a family of transmembrane proteins with repeated extracellular EGF domains and the notch (or DSL) domains.
  • Chemokine
    Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.
  • Cyclic ADP-ribose
    Cyclic ADP Ribose, frequently abbreviated as cADPR, is a cyclic adenine nucleotide (like cAMP) with two phosphate groups present on 5' OH of the adenosine (like ADP), further connected to another ribose at the 5' position, which, in turn, closes the cycle by glycosidic bonding to the nitrogen 1 (N1) of the same adenine base (whose position N9 has the glycosidic bond to the other ribose).
  • Aripiprazole
    Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic.
  • Inositol trisphosphate
    Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
  • Low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family
    The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family codes for a class of structurally related cell surface receptors that fulfill diverse biological functions in different organs, tissues, and cell types.
  • Adenylyl cyclase
    Adenylyl cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1, also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
  • Ras subfamily
    Ras is a family of related proteins which is expressed in all animal cell lineages and organs.
  • Phosphatidylinositol
    Phosphatidylinositol consists of a family of lipids as illustrated on the right, a class of the phosphatidylglycerides.
  • Calcineurin
    Calcineurin (CaN) is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase 3, and calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase).
  • Active zone
    The active zone or synaptic active zone is a term first used by Couteaux and Pecot-Dechavassinein in 1970 to define the site of neurotransmitter release.
  • Functional selectivity
    Functional selectivity (or “agonist trafficking”, “biased agonism”, “biased signalling”,"ligand bias", and “differential engagement” ) is the ligand-dependent selectivity for certain signal transduction pathways in one and the same receptor.
  • Autoinducer-2
    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a furanosyl borate diester, is a member of a family of signaling molecules used in quorum sensing.
  • Retinal
    Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.
  • Inositol trisphosphate receptor
    Inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as a Ca2+ channel activated by inositol trisphosphate (InsP3).
  • Two-component regulatory system
    In the field of molecular biology, a two-component regulatory system serves as a basic stimulus-response coupling mechanism to allow organisms to sense and respond to changes in many different environmental conditions.
  • Brexpiprazole
    Brexpiprazole (/brɛksˈpɪprəzoʊl/ breks-PIP-rə-zohl; brand name Rexulti recks-UL-tee, previously known as OPC-34712) is a novel atypical antipsychotic drug.
  • Adenophostin
    Adenophostin A is a potent inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor agonist, but is much more potent than IP3.
  • RAB27
    Rab27 is a member of the Rab subfamily of GTPases.
  • Node of Ranvier
    Nodes of Ranvier, also known as myelin sheath gaps, are periodic gaps in the insulating myelin sheaths of myelinated axons where the axonal membrane is exposed to the extracellular space.
  • Pertussis toxin
    Pertussis toxin (PT) is a protein-based AB5-type exotoxin produced by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough.
  • Casein kinase 2
    The Casein kinase 2 (EC 2.7.11.1) is a serine/threonine-selective protein kinase that is a tetramer of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits.
  • STAT5
    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) refers to two highly related proteins, STAT5A and STAT5B, which are part of the seven-membered STAT family of proteins.
  • STAT protein
    Members of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein family are intracellular transcription factors that mediate many aspects of cellular immunity, proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation.
  • SH2 domain
    The SH2 (Src Homology 2) domain is a structurally conserved protein domain contained within the Src oncoprotein and in many other intracellular signal-transducing proteins.
  • Calreticulin
    Calreticulin also known as calregulin, CRP55, CaBP3, calsequestrin-like protein, and endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 60 (ERp60) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CALR gene.
  • Extracellular signal–regulated kinases
    In molecular biology, extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells.
  • Casein kinase 1
    The Casein kinase 1 family (EC 2.7.11.1) of protein kinases are serine/threonine-selective enzymes that function as regulators of signal transduction pathways in most eukaryotic cell types.
  • Prickle (protein)
    Prickle is also known as REST/NRSF-interacting LIM domain protein, which is a putative nuclear translocation receptor.
  • PHLPP
    The PHLPP isoforms (PH domain and Leucine rich repeat Protein Phosphatases) are a pair of protein phosphatases, PHLPP1 and PHLPP2, that are important regulators of Akt serine-threonine kinases (Akt1, Akt2, Akt3) and conventional/novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms.
  • Phosphoinositide phospholipase C
    Phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC) (EC 3.1.4.11, triphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase, phosphoinositidase C, 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase, monophosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase, phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, PI-PLC, 1-phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate inositoltrisphosphohydrolase) is a family of eukaryotic intracellular enzymes that play an important role in signal transduction processes.
  • Frzb
    Frzb (pronounced like the toy frisbee) is a Wnt-binding protein especially important in embryonic development.
  • Hepatocyte nuclear factors
    Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNFs) are a group of phylogenetically unrelated transcription factors that regulate the transcription of a diverse group of genes into proteins.
  • Tryptophan-rich sensory protein
    Tryptophan-rich sensory proteins (TspO) are a family of proteins that are involved in transmembrane signalling.
  • Response regulator
    A response regulator is a protein that mediates a cell's response to changes in its environment as part of a two-component regulatory system.
  • Histidine phosphotransfer domain
    Histidine phosphotransfer domains and histidine phosphotransferases (both often abbreviated HPt) are protein domains involved in the "phosphorelay" form of two-component regulatory systems.