Radiobiology

2017-07-29T10:04:39+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Radioactive tracer, Scintillator, Specific absorption rate, Potassium iodide, Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents, Roentgen (unit), Nuclear fallout, Biological timeline of radiation poisoning, Hydroxy group, Nuclide, Radiation therapy, International Nuclear Event Scale, Chromosome abnormality, Food irradiation, Acute radiation syndrome, Red Forest, X-ray, Hormesis, Radioactive decay, Electromagnetic radiation and health, Actinide, Radiation chemistry, Malondialdehyde, Fludeoxyglucose (18F), Medical imaging, Singlet oxygen, Three Mile Island accident, Relative biological effectiveness, Reactive oxygen species, Mayak, Mobile phone radiation and health, Human radiation experiments, Radiopharmacology, Nuclear fission product, Ex-Rad, Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, Radiolysis, Technetium-99m, Joseph Gilbert Hamilton, Uranium in the environment, Cosmogenic nuclide flashcards Radiobiology
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  • Radioactive tracer
    A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radioisotope so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
  • Scintillator
    A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation — the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.
  • Specific absorption rate
    Specific absorption rate (SAR) is a measure of the rate at which energy is absorbed by the human body when exposed to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field; although, it can also refer to absorption of other forms of energy by tissue, including ultrasound.
  • Potassium iodide
    Potassium iodide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KI.
  • Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents
    A nuclear and radiation accident is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "an event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or the facility.
  • Roentgen (unit)
    The roentgen or röntgen (/ˈrɛntɡən, -dʒən/) (symbol R) is a legacy unit of measurement for the exposure of X-rays and gamma rays up to several megaelectronvolts.
  • Nuclear fallout
    Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast or a nuclear reaction conducted in an unshielded facility, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
  • Biological timeline of radiation poisoning
    The Biological timeline of radiation poisoning describes the phenomenon where, following a dose of ionizing radiation, a person may have a period of apparent health, lasting for days or weeks, despite a terminal illness.
  • Hydroxy group
    A hydroxyl or hydroxy group is a chemical functional group containing one oxygen atom connected by a covalent bond to one hydrogen atom (−OH).
  • Nuclide
    A nuclide (from nucleus) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.
  • Radiation therapy
    Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells.
  • International Nuclear Event Scale
    The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) was introduced in 1990 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in order to enable prompt communication of safety-significant information in case of nuclear accidents.
  • Chromosome abnormality
    A chromosome anomaly, abnormality, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA.
  • Food irradiation
    Food irradiation is the process of exposing foodstuffs to ionizing radiation.
  • Acute radiation syndrome
    Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation poisoning, radiation sickness, or radiation toxicity, is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high amounts of ionizing radiation.
  • Red Forest
    The Red Forest (Ukrainian: Рудий ліс, Rudyi lis Russian: Рыжий лес Ryzhy les, literally "ginger-color forest") is the 10-square-kilometre (4 sq mi) area surrounding the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant within the Exclusion Zone.
  • X-ray
    X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
  • Hormesis
    Hormesis is the term that describes any process in a cell or organism that exhibits a biphasic response to exposure to increasing amounts of a substance or condition.
  • Radioactive decay
    Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which the nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation, including alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and conversion electrons.
  • Electromagnetic radiation and health
    Very strong radiation can induce current capable of delivering an electric shock to persons or animals.
  • Actinide
    The actinide /ˈæktᵻnaɪd/ or actinoid /ˈæktᵻnɔɪd/ (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
  • Radiation chemistry
    Radiation chemistry is a subdivision of nuclear chemistry which is the study of the chemical effects of radiation on matter; this is very different from radiochemistry as no radioactivity needs to be present in the material which is being chemically changed by the radiation.
  • Malondialdehyde
    Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the organic compound with the formula CH2(CHO)2.
  • Fludeoxyglucose (18F)
    Fludeoxyglucose (18F) (INN), or fludeoxyglucose F 18 (USAN and USP), also commonly called fluorodeoxyglucose and abbreviated [18F]FDG, 18F-FDG or FDG, is a radiopharmaceutical used in the medical imaging modality positron emission tomography (PET).
  • Medical imaging
    Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
  • Singlet oxygen
    Singlet oxygen is a high energy form of oxygen.
  • Three Mile Island accident
    The Three Mile Island accident was a partial nuclear meltdown that occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI-2) in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, United States.
  • Relative biological effectiveness
    In radiobiology, the relative biological effectiveness (often abbreviated as RBE) is the ratio of biological effectiveness of one type of ionizing radiation relative to another, given the same amount of absorbed energy.
  • Reactive oxygen species
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
  • Mayak
    The Mayak Production Association (Russian: Производственное объединение «Маяк», from Маяк 'lighthouse') is one of the biggest nuclear facilities in the Russian Federation, housing plutonium production reactors and a reprocessing plant.
  • Mobile phone radiation and health
    The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is a subject of interest and study worldwide, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world.
  • Human radiation experiments
    Since the discovery of ionizing radiation, a number of human radiation experiments have been performed to understand the effects of ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination on the human body, specifically with the element plutonium.
  • Radiopharmacology
    Radiopharmacology or medicinal radiochemistry is radiochemistry applied to medicine and thus the pharmacology of radiopharmaceuticals (medicinal radiocompounds, that is, pharmaceutical drugs that are radioactive).
  • Nuclear fission product
    Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
  • Ex-Rad
    Ex-Rad (or Ex-RAD), also known by the code name ON 01210.
  • Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation
    Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is a disinfection method that uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganisms by destroying nucleic acids and disrupting their DNA, leaving them unable to perform vital cellular functions.
  • Radiolysis
    Radiolysis is the dissociation of molecules by nuclear radiation.
  • Technetium-99m
    Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99 (itself an isotope of technetium), symbolized as 99mTc, that is used in tens of millions of medical diagnostic procedures annually, making it the most commonly used medical radioisotope.
  • Joseph Gilbert Hamilton
    Joseph Gilbert Hamilton (November 11, 1907 – February 18, 1957) was an American professor of Medical Physics, Experimental Medicine, General Medicine, and Experimental Radiology as well as director (1948-1957) of the Crocker Laboratory, part of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
  • Uranium in the environment
    Uranium in the environment refers to the science of the sources, environmental behaviour, and effects of uranium on humans and other animals.
  • Cosmogenic nuclide
    Cosmogenic nuclides (or cosmogenic isotopes) are rare isotopes created when a high-energy cosmic ray interacts with the nucleus of an in situ Solar System atom, causing nucleons (protons and neutrons) to be expelled from the atom (see cosmic ray spallation).