Photosynthesis

2017-07-29T06:48:42+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Plastid terminal oxidase, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, PACMAD clade, Stoma, 1,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid, Chloroplast, Phylloquinone, Ycf4 protein domain, Plastoquinone, Carbon cycle, Photodissociation, Carotenoid, Photosystem I, Photosystem II, Ferredoxin, Dihydroxyacetone phosphate, Photosynthetic reaction centre, Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, Chlorin, BOP clade, 3-Phosphoglyceric acid, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Photorespiration, ATP synthase, Leaf, RuBisCO, Cytochrome b6f complex, Bacterial antenna complex, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, Light-independent reactions, Cytochrome f, Proteorhodopsin, Carbon sink, Light-harvesting complexes of green plants, Sedoheptulose-bisphosphatase, Transketolase, Cytochrome b559, Chloroplast DNA, Photosystem II light-harvesting protein, Crassulacean acid metabolism flashcards Photosynthesis
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  • Plastid terminal oxidase
    Plastid terminal oxidase or plastoquinol terminal oxidase (PTOX) is an enzyme that resides on the thylakoid membranes of plant and algae chloroplasts and on the membranes of cyanobacteria.
  • Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, also known as triose phosphate or 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and abbreviated as G3P, GA3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, is a chemical compound that occurs as an intermediate in several central metabolic pathways of all organisms.
  • PACMAD clade
    The PACMAD clade (previously PACCMAD, PACCAD, or PACC) is one of two major lineages (or clades) of the true grasses (Poaceae), regrouping six subfamilies and about 5700 species, more than half of all true grasses.
  • Stoma
    In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomate (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that is used to control gas exchange.
  • 1,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid
    1,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid (1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate or 1,3BPG) is a 3-carbon organic molecule present in most, if not all, living organisms.
  • Chloroplast
    Chloroplasts /ˈklɔːrəˌplæsts, -plɑːsts/ are organelles, specialized subunits, in plant and algal cells.
  • Phylloquinone
    Phylloquinone, also Vitamin K1, is a polycyclic aromatic ketone, based on 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, with a 3-phytyl substituent.
  • Ycf4 protein domain
    In molecular biology, the Ycf4 protein is involved in the assembly of the photosystem I complex which is part of an energy-harvesting process named photosynthesis.
  • Plastoquinone
    Plastoquinone (PQ) is a quinone molecule involved in the electron transport chain in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
  • Carbon cycle
    The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
  • Photodissociation
    Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
  • Carotenoid
    Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are found in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms, including some bacteria and some fungi.
  • Photosystem I
    Photosystem I (PS I, or plastocyanin: ferredoxin oxidoreductase) is the second photosystem in the photosynthetic light reactions of algae, plants, and some bacteria.
  • Photosystem II
    Photosystem II (or water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase) is the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis.
  • Ferredoxin
    Ferredoxins (from Latin ferrum: iron + redox, often abbreviated "fd") are iron-sulfur proteins that mediate electron transfer in a range of metabolic reactions.
  • Dihydroxyacetone phosphate
    Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP, also glycerone phosphate in older texts) is a biochemical compound involved in many metabolic pathways, including the Calvin cycle in plants and glycolysis.
  • Photosynthetic reaction centre
    A photosynthetic reaction centre is a complex of several proteins, pigments and other co-factors that together execute the primary energy conversion reactions of photosynthesis.
  • Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate
    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) is an organic substance that is involved in photosynthesis.
  • Chlorin
    In organic chemistry, a chlorin is a large heterocyclic aromatic ring consisting, at the core, of three pyrroles and one pyrroline coupled through four =CH- linkages.
  • BOP clade
    The BOP clade (sometimes BEP clade) is one of two major lineages (or clades) of undefined taxonomic rank in the grasses (Poaceae), containing more than 5,400 species, about half of all grasses.
  • 3-Phosphoglyceric acid
    3-Phosphoglyceric acid (3PG), or glycerate 3-phosphate (GP), is a biochemically significant 3-carbon molecule that is a metabolic intermediate in both glycolysis and the Calvin cycle.
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
  • Photorespiration
    Photorespiration (also known as the oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle, or C2 photosynthesis) refers to a process in plant metabolism where the enzyme RuBisCO oxygenates RuBP, causing some of the energy produced by photosynthesis to be wasted.
  • ATP synthase
    ATP synthase (EC 3.6.3.14) is an important enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
  • Leaf
    A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
  • RuBisCO
    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, commonly known by the abbreviations RuBisCO or RuBPCase, is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.
  • Cytochrome b6f complex
    The cytochrome b6f complex (plastoquinol—plastocyanin reductase; EC 1.10.99.1) is an enzyme found in the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts of plants, cyanobacteria, and green algae, that catalyze the transfer of electrons from plastoquinol to plastocyanin.
  • Bacterial antenna complex
    Bacterial antenna complex proteins are the main light-absorbing components in photosynthetic bacteria.
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase
    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (also known as PEP carboxylase, PEPCase, or PEPC; EC 4.1.1.31, PDB ID: 3ZGE) is an enzyme in the family of carboxy-lyases found in plants and some bacteria that catalyzes the addition of bicarbonate (HCO3−) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form the four-carbon compound oxaloacetate and inorganic phosphate: PEP + HCO3− → oxaloacetate + Pi
  • Light-independent reactions
    The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.
  • Cytochrome f
    Cytochrome f is the largest subunit of cytochrome b6f complex (plastoquinol—plastocyanin reductase; EC 1.10.99.1).
  • Proteorhodopsin
    Proteorhodopsin (also known as pRhodopsin) is a family of over 50 photoactive retinylidene proteins, a larger family of transmembrane proteins that use retinal as a chromophore for light-mediated functionality, in this case, a proton pump.
  • Carbon sink
    A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.
  • Light-harvesting complexes of green plants
    The light-harvesting complex (or antenna complex) is an array of protein and chlorophyll molecules embedded in the thylakoid membrane of plants, which transfer light energy to one chlorophyll a molecule at the reaction center of a photosystem.
  • Sedoheptulose-bisphosphatase
    Sedoheptulose-bisphosphatase (also sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase or SBPase) (EC 3.1.3.37) is an enzyme that catalyzes the removal of a phosphate group from sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate to produce sedoheptulose 7-phosphate.
  • Transketolase
    Transketolase is an enzyme of both the pentose phosphate pathway in all organisms and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis.
  • Cytochrome b559
    Cytochrome b559 is an important component of Photosystem II.
  • Chloroplast DNA
    Chloroplasts have their own DNA, often abbreviated as cpDNA.
  • Photosystem II light-harvesting protein
    Photosystem II light-harvesting proteins are the intrinsic transmembrane proteins CP43 (PsbC) and CP47 (PsbB) occurring in the reaction centre of photosystem II.
  • Crassulacean acid metabolism
    Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions.