Philosophical terminology

2017-07-27T18:16:54+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Reason, Agape, Predestination, Anima mundi, Eternity, Present, Immanence, Conatus, Empathy, Holy Spirit, Immortality, Object (philosophy), Objectivity (philosophy), Ren (Confucianism), Soul, Fatalism, Nous, Social alienation, Anthropocentrism, Gnosis, Akrasia, Analogy, Axial Age, Entity, Experience, Nonsense, Phenomenon, Principle, Teleology, Wisdom, Contemplation, Eurocentrism, Intuition, Hylomorphism, Subject (philosophy), Accident (philosophy), Human condition, Monad (philosophy), Dichotomy, Personal identity, Transcendence (philosophy), Lifeworld, Sophism, Self-consciousness flashcards Philosophical terminology
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  • Reason
    Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
  • Agape
    Agape (Ancient Greek: ἀγάπη, agápē) is "love: the highest form of love, charity; the love of God for man and of man for God.
  • Predestination
    Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul.
  • Anima mundi
    The world soul (Greek: ψυχὴ κόσμου, Latin: anima mundi) is, according to several systems of thought, an intrinsic connection between all living things on the planet, which relates to our world in much the same way as the soul is connected to the human body.
  • Eternity
    (For other uses, see Eternity (disambiguation).)("Sempiternal" redirects here. For the album by Bring Me the Horizon, see Sempiternal (album).) Eternity in common parlance is either an infinite or an indeterminately long period of time.
  • Present
    The present (or here and now) is the time that is associated with the events perceived directly and in the first time, not as a recollection (perceived more than once) or a speculation (predicted, hypothesis, uncertain).
  • Immanence
    Immanence refers to those philosophical and metaphysical theories of divine presence in which the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
  • Conatus
    In early philosophies of psychology and metaphysics, conatus (/koʊˈneɪtəs/; Latin for "effort; endeavor; impulse, inclination, tendency; undertaking; striving") is an innate inclination of a thing to continue to exist and enhance itself.
  • Empathy
    Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within the other being's frame of reference, i.
  • Holy Spirit
    (For other uses, see Holy Spirit (disambiguation).) Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
  • Immortality
    Immortality is eternal life, the ability to live forever.
  • Object (philosophy)
    An object is a technical term in modern philosophy often used in contrast to the term subject.
  • Objectivity (philosophy)
    Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.
  • Ren (Confucianism)
    Ren (Chinese: 仁; pinyin: rén; Wade–Giles: jen) is the Confucian virtue denoting the good feeling a virtuous human experiences when being altruistic.
  • Soul
    In many religions, philosophical, and mythological traditions, the soul is the incorporeal and immortal essence of a living being.
  • Fatalism
    Fatalism is a philosophical doctrine stressing the subjugation of all events or actions to fate.
  • Nous
    Nous (British: /ˈnaʊs/; US: /ˈnuːs/), sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence, is a philosophical term for the faculty of the human mind which is described in classical philosophy as necessary for understanding what is true or real.
  • Social alienation
    Social alienation, a sociological concept developed by several classical and contemporary theorists, is "a condition in social relationships reflected by a low degree of integration or common values and a high degree of distance or isolation between individuals, or between an individual and a group of people in a community or work environment".
  • Anthropocentrism
    Anthropocentrism (/ˌænθroʊpoʊˈsɛntrɪzəm/; from Greek ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos, "human being"; and κέντρον, kéntron, "center") the belief that considers human beings to be the most significant entity of the universe and interprets or regards the world in terms of human values and experiences.
  • Gnosis
    Gnosis is the common Greek noun for knowledge (in the nominative case γνῶσις f.).
  • Akrasia
    Akrasia (/əˈkreɪzɪə/; Greek ἀκρασία, "lacking command"), occasionally transliterated as acrasia or Anglicised as acrasy or acracy, is described as a lack of self-control or the state of acting against one's better judgement.
  • Analogy
    Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
  • Axial Age
    Axial Age (also Axis Age, from German German: Achsenzeit) is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers in the sense of a "pivotal age" characterizing the period of ancient history during about the 8th to 3rd centuries BC.
  • Entity
    An entity is something that exists as itself, as a subject or as an object, actually or potentially, concretely or abstractly, physically or not.
  • Experience
    Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
  • Nonsense
    Nonsense is a communication, via speech, writing, or any other symbolic system, that lacks any coherent meaning.
  • Phenomenon
    A phenomenon (Greek: , phainomenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
  • Principle
    A principle is a law or rule that has to be, or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed.
  • Teleology
    Teleology (from Greek telos, meaning end or purpose) is the philosophical study of nature by attempting to describe things in terms of their apparent purpose, directive principle, or goal.
  • Wisdom
    'Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight.
  • Contemplation
    Contemplation means profound thinking about something.
  • Eurocentrism
    Eurocentrism (also "Western-centrism") is political term coined in the 1980s, referring to the notion of European exceptionalism, a worldview centered on Western civilization, as it had developed during the height of the European colonial empires since the Early Modern period.
  • Intuition
    Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.
  • Hylomorphism
    Hylomorphism (or hylemorphism) is a philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which conceives being (ousia) as a compound of matter and form.
  • Subject (philosophy)
    "A subject means subject, but an object means object.
  • Accident (philosophy)
    Accident, as used in philosophy, is an attribute which may or may not belong to a subject, without affecting its essence.
  • Human condition
    The human condition is "the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality.
  • Monad (philosophy)
    Monad (from Greek μονάς monas, "unit" in turn from μόνος monos, "alone"), refers in cosmogony (creation theories) to the first being, divinity, or the totality of all beings.
  • Dichotomy
    A dichotomy /daɪˈkɒtəmi/ is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets).
  • Personal identity
    In philosophy, the matter of personal identity deals with such questions as, "What makes it true that a person at one time is the same thing as a person at another time?" or "What kinds of things are we persons?" The term "identity" in "personal identity" refers to "numerical identity," where saying that X and Y are numerically identical just means that X and Y are the same thing.
  • Transcendence (philosophy)
    In philosophy, the adjective transcendental and the noun transcendence convey the basic ground concept from the word's literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond, albeit with varying connotations in its different historical and cultural stages.
  • Lifeworld
    Lifeworld (German: Lebenswelt) may be conceived as a universe of what is self-evident or given, a world that subjects may experience together.
  • Sophism
    Sophism is a method of teaching.
  • Self-consciousness
    Self-consciousness is an acute sense of self-awareness.