Philosophical schools and traditions

2017-07-28T18:40:43+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Optimism, Archeio-Marxism, Physicalism, Alexandrian school, Advaita Vedanta, Historical materialism, Hermeticism, Posthumanism, Social constructionism, Post-structuralism, Integral theory (Ken Wilber), Macrobiotic diet, Scientism, Narodniks, Spiritualism (philosophy), Charvaka, Nominalism, Externalism, Eurythmy, Hatha yoga, Philosophical realism, Mechanical philosophy, Mīmāṃsā, Négritude, Instrumentalism, Critical rationalism, Cosmopolitanism, School of Names, Objectivism (Ayn Rand), Accademia Fiorentina, Philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard, Philosophes, Marxism–Leninism, Peripatetic school, Scholasticism, Indeterminism, Fatalism, Egoist anarchism flashcards Philosophical schools and traditions
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  • Optimism
    Optimism is a mental attitude.
  • Archeio-Marxism
    Archeio-Marxism (Greek: αρχειομαρξισμός) was a radical left political movement that was active in interwar Greece.
  • Physicalism
    In philosophy, physicalism is the ontological thesis that "everything is physical", that there is "nothing over and above" the physical, or that everything supervenes on the physical.
  • Alexandrian school
    The Alexandrian school is a collective designation for certain tendencies in literature, philosophy, medicine, and the sciences that developed in the Hellenistic cultural center of Alexandria, Egypt during the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
  • Advaita Vedanta
    Advaita Vedanta (IAST, Advaita Vedānta; Sanskrit: अद्वैत वेदान्त; literally, not-two) is a sub-school of Vedanta schools of Hindu philosophy and religious practice.
  • Historical materialism
    Historical materialism is a methodological approach to the study of human societies and their development over time and was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818–1883) as the materialist conception of history.
  • Hermeticism
    Hermeticism, also called Hermetism, is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ("Thrice Great").
  • Posthumanism
    Posthumanism or post-humanism (meaning "after humanism" or "beyond humanism") is a term with at least seven definitions according to philosopher Francesca Ferrando: 1.
  • Social constructionism
    Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
  • Post-structuralism
    Post-structuralism is a label formulated by American academics to denote the heterogeneous works of a series of mid-20th-century French and continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to international prominence in the 1960s and 1970s.
  • Integral theory (Ken Wilber)
    Integral theory is Ken Wilber's attempt to place a wide diversity of theories and thinkers into one single framework.
  • Macrobiotic diet
    A macrobiotic diet (or macrobiotics), is a nutritional philosophy focused on eating foods based on a person's health status, climate, seasonality of crops, age, gender, and geography among other considerations.
  • Scientism
    Scientism is a belief in the universal applicability of the scientific method and approach, and the view that empirical science constitutes the most authoritative worldview or the most valuable part of human learning—to the exclusion of other viewpoints.
  • Narodniks
    The Narodniks (Russian: народники, pronounced [nɐˈrodʲnʲɪkʲɪ]) were a socially conscious movement of the Russian middle class in the 1860s and 1870s, some of whom became involved in revolutionary agitation against the Tsardom.
  • Spiritualism (philosophy)
    In philosophy, spiritualism is the notion, shared by a wide variety of systems of thought, that there is an immaterial reality that cannot be perceived by the senses.
  • Charvaka
    Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.
  • Nominalism
    Nominalism is a metaphysical view in philosophy according to which general or abstract terms and predicates exist, while universals or abstract objects, which are sometimes thought to correspond to these terms, do not exist.
  • Externalism
    Externalism is a group of positions in the philosophy of mind which argues that the conscious mind is not only the result of what is going on inside the nervous system (or the brain), but also what occurs or exists outside the subject.
  • Eurythmy
    Eurythmy is an expressive movement art originated by Rudolf Steiner in conjunction with Marie von Sivers in the early 20th century.
  • Hatha yoga
    Hatha yoga (Sanskrit haṭhayoga, IPA: [ɦəʈʰəˈjoːɡə]), also called Haṭhavidyā , is a branch of yoga.
  • Philosophical realism
    Contemporary philosophical realism is the belief that some aspects of reality are ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, perceptions, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc.
  • Mechanical philosophy
    The mechanical philosophy is a term for an aspect of the scientific revolution of Early Modern Europe, in which an innovative branch of natural philosophy arose in the period about 1620 to 1650, describing the universe as similar to a large-scale mechanism.
  • Mīmāṃsā
    Mimamsa (IAST: Mīmāṃsā) is a Sanskrit word that means "reflection" or "critical investigation".
  • Négritude
    Négritude is a literary and ideological philosophy, developed by francophone African intellectuals, writers, and politicians in France during the 1930s.
  • Instrumentalism
    Instrumentalism is one of a multitude of modern schools of thought created by scientists and philosophers throughout the 20th century.
  • Critical rationalism
    Critical rationalism is an epistemological philosophy advanced by Karl Popper.
  • Cosmopolitanism
    Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.
  • School of Names
    The Logicians or School of Names (Chinese: 名家; pinyin: Míngjiā) was a school of Chinese philosophy that grew out of Mohism during the Warring States period in 479–221 BCE.
  • Objectivism (Ayn Rand)
    Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian American writer Ayn Rand (1905–1982).
  • Accademia Fiorentina
    The Accademia Fiorentina was a philosophical and literary academy in Renaissance Florence, Italy.
  • Philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard
    Søren Kierkegaard's philosophy has been a major influence in the development of 20th-century philosophy, especially existentialism and postmodernism.
  • Philosophes
    The philosophes (French for "philosophers") were the intellectuals of the 18th-century Enlightenment.
  • Marxism–Leninism
    Marxism–Leninism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of Marxism and Leninism, and seeks to establish socialist states and develop them further.
  • Peripatetic school
    The Peripatetic school was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece.
  • Scholasticism
    Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics," or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
  • Indeterminism
    Indeterminism is the concept that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically (cf. causality) by prior events.
  • Fatalism
    Fatalism is a philosophical doctrine stressing the subjugation of all events or actions to fate.
  • Egoist anarchism
    Egoist anarchism is a school of anarchist thought that originated in the philosophy of Max Stirner, a nineteenth-century Hegelian philosopher whose "name appears with familiar regularity in historically orientated surveys of anarchist thought as one of the earliest and best-known exponents of individualist anarchism.