Peptide hormones

2017-07-28T21:32:45+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Motilin, Pancreatic polypeptide, Glucagon, Leptin, Erythropoietin, Oxytocin, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Growth hormone, NPH insulin, Pramlintide, Luteinizing hormone, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Gastrin, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Somatostatin, Angiotensin, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Renin, Insulin-like growth factor 2, Met-enkephalin, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Growth factor, Growth hormone–releasing hormone, Substance P, Exenatide, Tachykinin peptides, Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Endothelin, Beta-Endorphin, Relaxin, Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, Liraglutide, Asprosin, Relaxin family peptide hormones, Teleost leptins, Obestatin, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Bradykinin, Agouti signalling peptide, Alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, Amylin family, Erythroferrone, Big gastrin, Secretin family, Insulin degludec, Insulin aspart, Insulin lispro, Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Hepcidin, Osteocalcin, Insulin glargine, Neuropeptide VF precursor, Sauvagine, Beta-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, Gamma-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, Minigastrin, Human placental lactogen, Activin and inhibin, Lipotropin, Vitellogenin, Little gastrin I, Crustacean neurohormone family flashcards Peptide hormones
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  • Motilin
    Motilin is a 22-amino acid polypeptide hormone in the motilin family that, in humans, is encoded by the MLN gene.
  • Pancreatic polypeptide
    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a polypeptide secreted by PP cells in the endocrine pancreas predominantly in the head of the pancreas.
  • Glucagon
    Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
  • Leptin
    Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), the "satiety hormone", is a hormone made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.
  • Erythropoietin
    Erythropoietin (/ɪˌrɪθroʊˈpɔɪᵻtən/ or /ɪˌrɪθroʊpoʊˈɛtɪn, -rə-, -ˈiː-, -tən/; from Greek: ἐρυθρός, erythros 'red' and ποιεῖν, poiein 'make'), also known as EPO, hematopoietin, or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production.
  • Oxytocin
    Oxytocin (Oxt) is a hormone, neuropeptide, and medication.
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone
    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as corticotropin (INN, BAN) (brand names Acortan, ACTH, Acthar, Acton, Cortigel, Trofocortina), is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
  • Growth hormone
    Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone [hGH or HGH] in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
  • NPH insulin
    NPH insulin, also known as isophane insulin (INN) and by , is an intermediate-acting insulin given to help control the blood sugar level of people with diabetes.
  • Pramlintide
    Pramlintide (Symlin) is an injectable amylin analogue drug for diabetes (both type 1 and 2), developed by Amylin Pharmaceuticals (now a wholly owned subsidiary of AstraZeneca).
  • Luteinizing hormone
    Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone
    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
  • Prolactin
    Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that in humans is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
  • Gastrin
    Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
  • Somatostatin
    Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone–inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by , is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
  • Angiotensin
    Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure.
  • Insulin-like growth factor 1
    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.
  • Renin
    Renin (), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is a protein and enzyme that participates in the body's renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis—that mediates extracellular volume (i.e., that of the blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.
  • Insulin-like growth factor 2
    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is one of three protein hormones that share structural similarity to insulin.
  • Met-enkephalin
    Met-enkephalin, also known as metenkefalin (INN), sometimes referred to as opioid growth factor (OGF), is a naturally occurring, endogenous opioid peptide that has opioid effects of a relatively short duration.
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin
    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.
  • Growth factor
    A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
  • Growth hormone–releasing hormone
    Growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as somatoliberin or by in its endogenous forms and as somatorelin (INN) in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone of growth hormone (GH).
  • Substance P
    Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family.
  • Exenatide
    Exenatide (/ɛɡzˈɛnətaɪd/, INN, marketed as Byetta, Bydureon) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist (GLP-1 agonist) medication, belonging to the group of incretin mimetics, approved in April 2005 for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2.
  • Tachykinin peptides
    Tachykinin peptides are one of the largest families of neuropeptides, found from amphibians to mammals.
  • Gastric inhibitory polypeptide
    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), also known as the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, is an inhibiting hormone of the secretin family of hormones.
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone
    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
  • Endothelin
    Endothelins are peptides that constrict blood vessels and raise blood pressure.
  • Beta-Endorphin
    β-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid neuropeptide found in the neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous system.
  • Relaxin
    Relaxin is a protein hormone of about 6000 Da first described in 1926 by Frederick Hisaw.
  • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    The melanocyte-stimulating hormones, known collectively as MSH, also known as melanotropins or intermedins, are a family of peptide hormones and neuropeptides consisting of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (β-MSH), and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) that are produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland.
  • Liraglutide
    Liraglutide (NN2211) is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, binding to the same receptors as does the endogenous metabolic hormone GLP-1 that stimulates insulin secretion.
  • Asprosin
    Asprosin is a protein hormone that is produced by white adipose tissue in mammals (and potentially by other tissues), which is then transported to the liver and stimulates it to release glucose into the blood stream.
  • Relaxin family peptide hormones
    Relaxin family peptide hormones in humans are represented by 7 members: three relaxin-like (RLN) and four insulin-like (INSL) peptides.
  • Teleost leptins
    Teleost leptins are a family of peptide hormones found in fish (teleostei) that are orthologs of the mammalian hormone leptin.
  • Obestatin
    Obestatin is a hormone that is produced in specialized epithelial cells of the stomach and small intestine of several mammals including humans.
  • N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide
    The N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP or BNPT) is a prohormone with a 76 amino acid N-terminal inactive protein that is cleaved from the molecule to release brain natriuretic peptide.
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or thyroliberin, is a releasing hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that stimulates the release of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary.
  • Bradykinin
    Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator.
  • Agouti signalling peptide
    Agouti signalling peptide, a product of the Agouti gene, is a peptide consisting of 131 amino acids.
  • Alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is an endogenous peptide hormone and neuropeptide of the melanocortin family, with a tridecapeptide structure and the amino acid sequence Ac-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Met-Glu-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2.
  • Amylin family
    In molecular biology, the amylin protein family or calcitonin/CGRP/IAPP protein family' is a family of proteins, which includes the precursors of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) and adrenomedullin.
  • Erythroferrone
    Erythroferrone is a protein hormone, abbreviated as ERFE, encoded in humans by the FAM132B gene.
  • Big gastrin
    Big gastrin is a form of gastrin with 34 amino acids in the sequence.
  • Secretin family
    Glucagon/GIP/secretin/VIP hormones are a family of evolutionarily related peptide hormones that regulate activity of G-protein coupled receptors from secretin receptor family.
  • Insulin degludec
    Insulin degludec (INN/USAN) is an ultralong-acting basal insulin analogue that was developed by Novo Nordisk under the brand name Tresiba.
  • Insulin aspart
    Insulin aspart is a fast-acting insulin analog marketed by Novo Nordisk as NovoLog/NovoRapid.
  • Insulin lispro
    Insulin lispro (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company as Humalog) is a fast acting insulin analog.
  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3), is a glycoprotein that stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into the bloodstream.
  • Hepcidin
    Hepcidin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAMP gene.
  • Osteocalcin
    (Not to be confused with Osteonectin or Osteopontin.) Osteocalcin, also known as bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGLAP), is a noncollagenous protein found in bone and dentin.
  • Insulin glargine
    Insulin glargine, marketed under the names Lantus among others, is a long-acting basal insulin analogue, given once daily to help control the blood sugar level of those with diabetes.
  • Neuropeptide VF precursor
    Neuropeptide VF precursor, also known as pro-FMRFamide-related neuropeptide VF or RFamide-related peptide precursor, is a propeptide that in mammals is encoded by the NPVF (or RPFP) gene.
  • Sauvagine
    Sauvagine is a protein that functions as a neuropeptide.
  • Beta-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    β-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (β-MSH) is an endogenous peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
  • Gamma-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    γ-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) is an endogenous peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
  • Minigastrin
    Minigastrin (also mini gastrin) is a form of gastrin.
  • Human placental lactogen
    Human placental lactogen (hPL), also called human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS), is a polypeptide placental hormone, the human form of placental lactogen (chorionic somatomammotropin).
  • Activin and inhibin
    Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects.
  • Lipotropin
    Lipotropin is a hormone produced by the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
  • Vitellogenin
    Vitellogenin (VTG or less popularly known as VG) (from latin vitellus, yolk, and gener, to produce) is a precursor protein of egg yolk normally in the blood or hemolymph only of females that is used as a biomarker in vertebrates of exposure to environmental estrogens which stimulate elevated levels in males as well as females.
  • Little gastrin I
    Little gastrin I is a form of gastrin commonly called as gastrin-17.
  • Crustacean neurohormone family
    In molecular biology, the crustacean neurohormone family of proteins is a family of neuropeptides expressed by arthropods.