Number theory

2017-07-27T18:15:48+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Riemann hypothesis, Primorial, Algebraic integer, Amicable numbers, Continued fraction, Discrete logarithm, Euclid's lemma, Factorial, Farey sequence, Fundamental theorem of arithmetic, Greatest common divisor, P-adic number, Prime number, Multiplicative group of integers modulo n, Regular prime, Ramanujan's sum, Brocard's problem, Zolotarev's lemma, Juggler sequence, Geometry of numbers, Probable prime, Friendly number, Hodge–Tate module, Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, Weil–Châtelet group, Binomial number, Schnorr group flashcards Number theory
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  • Riemann hypothesis
    In mathematics, the Riemann hypothesis is a conjecture that the Riemann zeta function has its zeros only at the negative even integers and the complex numbers with real part 1/2.
  • Primorial
    In mathematics, and more particularly in number theory, primorial is a function from natural numbers to natural numbers similar to the factorial function, but rather than successively multiplying positive integers, only prime numbers are multiplied.
  • Algebraic integer
    In Algebraic number theory, an algebraic integer is a complex number that is a root of some monic polynomial (a polynomial whose leading coefficient is 1) with coefficients in (the set of integers).
  • Amicable numbers
    Amicable numbers are two different numbers so related that the sum of the proper divisors of each is equal to the other number.
  • Continued fraction
    In mathematics, a continued fraction is an expression obtained through an iterative process of representing a number as the sum of its integer part and the reciprocal of another number, then writing this other number as the sum of its integer part and another reciprocal, and so on.
  • Discrete logarithm
    In mathematics, a discrete logarithm is an integer k solving the equation bk = g, where b and g are elements of a finite group.
  • Euclid's lemma
    This property is the key in the proof of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic.
  • Factorial
    In mathematics, the factorial of a non-negative integer n, denoted by n!, is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n.
  • Farey sequence
    In mathematics, the Farey sequence of order n is the sequence of completely reduced fractions between 0 and 1 which when in lowest terms have denominators less than or equal to n, arranged in order of increasing size.
  • Fundamental theorem of arithmetic
    In number theory, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, also called the unique factorization theorem or the unique-prime-factorization theorem, states that every integer greater than 1 either is prime itself or is the product of prime numbers, and that this product is unique, up to the order of the factors.
  • Greatest common divisor
    In mathematics, the greatest common divisor (gcd) of two or more integers, when at least one of them is not zero, is the largest positive integer that divides the numbers without a remainder.
  • P-adic number
    In mathematics the p-adic number system for any prime number p extends the ordinary arithmetic of the rational numbers in a way different from the extension of the rational number system to the real and complex number systems.
  • Prime number
    A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself.
  • Multiplicative group of integers modulo n
    In modular arithmetic the set of congruence classes relatively prime to the modulus number, say n, form a group under multiplication called the multiplicative group of integers modulo n.
  • Regular prime
    In number theory, a regular prime is a special kind of prime number, defined by Ernst Kummer in 1850 to prove certain cases of Fermat's Last Theorem.
  • Ramanujan's sum
    In number theory, a branch of mathematics, Ramanujan's sum, usually denoted cq(n), is a function of two positive integer variables q and n defined by the formula where (a, q) = 1 means that a only takes on values coprime to q.
  • Brocard's problem
    Brocard's problem is a problem in mathematics that asks to find integer values of n and m for which where n! is the factorial.
  • Zolotarev's lemma
    In number theory, Zolotarev's lemma states that the Legendre symbol for an integer a modulo an odd prime number p, where p does not divide a, can be computed as the sign of a permutation: where ε denotes the signature of a permutation and πa is the permutation of the nonzero residue classes mod p induced by multiplication by a.
  • Juggler sequence
    In recreational mathematics a juggler sequence is an integer sequence that starts with a positive integer a0, with each subsequent term in the sequence defined by the recurrence relation:
  • Geometry of numbers
    In number theory, the geometry of numbers studies convex bodies and integer vectors in n-dimensional space.
  • Probable prime
    In number theory, a probable prime (PRP) is an integer that satisfies a specific condition that is satisfied by all prime numbers, but which is not satisfied by most composite numbers.
  • Friendly number
    In number theory, friendly numbers are two or more natural numbers with a common abundancy, the ratio between the sum of divisors of a number and the number itself.
  • Hodge–Tate module
    In mathematics, a Hodge–Tate module is an analogue of a Hodge structure over p-adic fields.
  • Disquisitiones Arithmeticae
    The Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (Latin for "Arithmetical Investigations") is a textbook of number theory written in Latin by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1798 when Gauss was 21 and first published in 1801 when he was 24.
  • Weil–Châtelet group
    In arithmetic geometry, the Weil–Châtelet group or WC-group of an algebraic group such as an abelian variety A defined over a field K is the abelian group of principal homogeneous spaces for A, defined over K.
  • Binomial number
    In mathematics, specifically in number theory, a binomial number is an integer which can be obtained by evaluating a homogeneous polynomial containing two terms.
  • Schnorr group
    A Schnorr group, proposed by Claus P.