Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree") (also dendron) are the branched projections of a neuron that act to propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Golgi tendon organ
The Golgi organ (also called Golgi tendon organ, GTO, tendon organ, neurotendinous organ or neurotendinous spindle) is a proprioceptive sensory receptor organ that senses changes in muscle tension.
Electrocorticography (ECoG), or intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), is a type of electrophysiological monitoring that uses electrodes placed directly on the exposed surface of the brain to record electrical activity from the cerebral cortex.
Afferent nerve fiber
In the peripheral nervous system, an afferent nerve fiber is the axon of an afferent sensory neuron.
A nerve fiber is a threadlike extension of a nerve cell and consists of an axon and (in some cases) a myelin sheath.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain.
Neuregulins or neuroregulins are a family of four structurally related proteins that are part of the EGF family of proteins.
The superior colliculus, (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family
The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family codes for a class of structurally related cell surface receptors that fulfill diverse biological functions in different organs, tissues, and cell types.
Brodmann area 5
Brodmann area 5 is one of Brodmann's cytologically defined regions of the brain.
Brodmann area 7
Brodmann area 7 is one of Brodmann's cytologically defined regions of the brain.
Brodmann area 6
Brodmann area 6 is part of the brain.
Refractory period (physiology)
Refractoriness is the fundamental property of any object of autowave nature (especially excitable medium) not to respond on stimuli, if the object stays in the specific refractory state.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis), is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body.
Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.
Rapid eye movement sleep
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of mammalian sleep characterized by random movement of the eyes, low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
N-Acetylaspartylglutamic acid (N-acetylaspartylglutamate or NAAG) is a peptide neurotransmitter and the third-most-prevalent neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system.
Brodmann area 8
Brodmann area 8 is one of Brodmann's cytologically defined regions of the brain.
An electrical synapse is a mechanical and electrically conductive link between two neighboring neurons that is formed at a narrow gap between the pre- and postsynaptic neurons known as a gap junction.
In physiology, an action potential is a short-lasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls, following a consistent trajectory.
Rostral migratory stream
The rostral migratory stream (RMS) is a specialized migratory route found in the brain of some animals along which neuronal precursors that originated in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain migrate to reach the main olfactory bulb (OB).
VGF or VGF nerve growth factor inducible is a protein and neuropeptide that may play a role in regulating energy homeostasis, metabolism and synaptic plasticity.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic.
Hunger (motivational state)
Hunger and satiety are sensations.
Sensorineural hearing loss
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing loss, or deafness, in which the root cause lies in the inner ear or sensory organ (cochlea and associated structures) or the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII) or neural part.
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a term used to describe both embryonic and adult neural tissues in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
The sinoatrial node (often abbreviated SA node; also commonly called the sinus node and less commonly the sinuatrial node) is the normal natural pacemaker of the heart and is responsible for the initiation of the cardiac cycle (heartbeat).
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity or neural plasticity, is an umbrella term that describes lasting change to the brain throughout an individual's life course.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
Herbert Henri Jasper, OC GOQ FRSC (July 27, 1906 – March 11, 1999) was a Canadian psychologist, physiologist, anatomist, chemist and neurologist.
Electrooculography (EOG/E.O.G.) is a technique for measuring the corneo-retinal standing potential that exists between the front and the back of the human eye.
Electromyography (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.
Schwann cells (TA: Gliocytus periphericus) (named after physiologist Theodor Schwann) or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
Neural oscillation is rhythmic or repetitive neural activity in the central nervous system.
Functional selectivity (or “agonist trafficking”, “biased agonism”, “biased signalling”,"ligand bias", and “differential engagement” ) is the ligand-dependent selectivity for certain signal transduction pathways in one and the same receptor.
The bafilomycins are a family of toxic macrolide antibiotic derived from Streptomyces griseus.
The barrel cortex refers to a region of somatosensory cortex that is identifiable in some species of rodents and species of at least two other orders and contains the barrel field.
Pontine micturition center
The Pontine micturition center (PMC, also known as Barrington's nucleus) is a collection of neuronal cell bodies located in the rostral pons in the brainstem involved in the supraspinal regulation of micturition.
Long-term depression (LTD), in neurophysiology, is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.
Neurophysiological Biomarker Toolbox
The Neurophysiological Biomarker Toolbox (NBT) is an open source Matlab toolbox for the computation and integration of neurophysiological biomarkers (e.g., biomarkers based on EEG or MEG recordings).
Surface wave detection by animals
Surface wave detection by animals is the process by which animals, such as surface-feeding fish are able to sense and localize prey and other objects on the surface of a body of water by analyzing features of the ripples generated by objects' movement at the surface.
The voltage clamp is an experimental method used by electrophysiologists to measure the ion currents through the membranes of excitable cells, such as neurons, while holding the membrane voltage at a set level.
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD), a family of sleep disorders, affect (among other bodily processes) the timing of sleep.
The active zone or synaptic active zone is a term first used by Couteaux and Pecot-Dechavassinein in 1970 to define the site of neurotransmitter release.
Pain in invertebrates
Pain in invertebrates is a contentious issue.
The medial orbital gyrus presents a well-marked antero-posterior sulcus, the olfactory sulcus, for the olfactory tract.
The olfactory tubercle (OT, tuberculum olfactorium) is a multi-sensory processing center in the olfactory cortex that plays a role in reward behaviors.
Clinical Neurophysiology (journal)
Clinical Neurophysiology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Elsevier.
The solitary tract (Latin: tractus solitarius) is a compact fiber bundle that extends longitudinally through the posterolateral region of the medulla.
Peter Fenwick (neuropsychologist)
Peter Brooke Cadogan Fenwick (born 25 May 1935) is a neuropsychiatrist and neurophysiologist who is known for his studies of epilepsy and end-of-life phenomena.
Neuronetics is a privately held company developing non-invasive treatments for depression and other chronic psychiatric and neurological disorders based upon neuromodulation technology.
Brexpiprazole (/brɛksˈpɪprəzoʊl/ breks-PIP-rə-zohl; brand name Rexulti recks-UL-tee, previously known as OPC-34712) is a novel atypical antipsychotic drug.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Ictal refers to a physiologic state or event such as a seizure, stroke, or headache.