Neuropeptides

2017-07-27T19:55:41+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Proopiomelanocortin, Nociceptin, Somatostatin, VGF, Tachykinin peptides, Orexin, Amyloid beta, Substance P, Endorphins, Oxytocin, Opioid peptide, N-Acetylaspartylglutamic acid, CCK-4, Bombesin, Copeptin, Vasotocin, Proenkephalin, Agouti-related peptide, Neuromedin S, Neuromedin U, Dynorphin A, Galanin-like peptide, Neuropeptide VF precursor, Opiorphin, Neuromedin N, Cortistatin (neuropeptide), Bombesin-like peptides, Neuropeptide S, Corticotropin-like intermediate peptide, Eledoisin, Physalaemin, Neurokinin B, Neuromedin B, Hemopressin, RVD-Hpα, Galanin, Neuropeptide Y, Neurotensin, Alpha-Endorphin, Dynorphin B, Gamma-Endorphin, Galnon, Galmic, Endomorphin-1, Endomorphin-2 flashcards Neuropeptides
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  • Proopiomelanocortin
    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues.
  • Nociceptin
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), a 17-amino acid neuropeptide, is the endogenous ligand for the nociceptin receptor (NOP, ORL-1), and initiates its function to act on numerous brain activities such as pain sensation and fear learning.
  • Somatostatin
    Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone–inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by , is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
  • VGF
    VGF or VGF nerve growth factor inducible is a protein and neuropeptide that may play a role in regulating energy homeostasis, metabolism and synaptic plasticity.
  • Tachykinin peptides
    Tachykinin peptides are one of the largest families of neuropeptides, found from amphibians to mammals.
  • Orexin
    Orexin, also called hypocretin, is a neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness, and appetite.
  • Amyloid beta
    Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) denotes peptides of 36–43 amino acids that are crucially involved in Alzheimer's disease as the main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer patients.
  • Substance P
    Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family.
  • Endorphins
    Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides in humans and other animals.
  • Oxytocin
    Oxytocin (Oxt) is a hormone, neuropeptide, and medication.
  • Opioid peptide
    Opioid peptides are short sequences of amino acids that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides.
  • N-Acetylaspartylglutamic acid
    N-Acetylaspartylglutamic acid (N-acetylaspartylglutamate or NAAG) is a peptide neurotransmitter and the third-most-prevalent neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system.
  • CCK-4
    Cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4, Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) is a peptide fragment derived from the larger peptide hormone cholecystokinin.
  • Bombesin
    Bombesin is a 14-amino acid peptide originally isolated from the skin of the European fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina).
  • Copeptin
    Copeptin (also known as CT-proAVP) is a 39-amino acid-long peptide derived from a pre-pro-hormone consisting of vasopressin, neurophysin II and copeptin.
  • Vasotocin
    Vasotocin is an oligopeptide homologous to oxytocin and vasopressin found in all non-mammalian vertebrates (including birds, fishes, and amphibians) and possibly in mammals during the fetal stage of development.
  • Proenkephalin
    Proenkephalin (PENK), formerly known as proenkephalin A (since proenkephalin B was renamed prodynorphin), is an endogenous opioid polypeptide hormone which, via proteolyic cleavage, produces the enkephalin peptides [Met]enkephalin, and to a lesser extent, [Leu]enkephalin.
  • Agouti-related peptide
    Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron.
  • Neuromedin S
    Neuromedin S is a 36-amino acid neuropeptide found in the brain of humans and other mammals.
  • Neuromedin U
    Neuromedin U (or NmU) is a neuropeptide found in the brain of humans and other mammals, which has a number of diverse functions including contraction of smooth muscle, regulation of blood pressure, pain perception, appetite, bone growth, and hormone release.
  • Dynorphin A
    Dynorphin A is a form of dynorphin and an endogenous opioid peptide with the amino acid sequence: Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-Arg-Arg-Ile-Arg-Pro-Lys-Leu-Lys.
  • Galanin-like peptide
    Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a neuropeptide present in humans and other mammals.
  • Neuropeptide VF precursor
    Neuropeptide VF precursor, also known as pro-FMRFamide-related neuropeptide VF or RFamide-related peptide precursor, is a propeptide that in mammals is encoded by the NPVF (or RPFP) gene.
  • Opiorphin
    Opiorphin is an endogenous chemical compound first isolated from human saliva.
  • Neuromedin N
    Neuromedin N is a neuropeptide derived from the same precursor polypeptide as neurotensin, and with similar but subtly distinct expression and effects.
  • Cortistatin (neuropeptide)
    Precortistatin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CORT gene.
  • Bombesin-like peptides
    Bombesin-like peptides comprise a large family of peptides which were initially isolated from amphibian skin, where they stimulate smooth muscle contraction.
  • Neuropeptide S
    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, mainly produced by neurons in the amygdala and between Barrington's nucleus and the locus coeruleus, although NPS-responsive neurons extend projections into many other brain areas.
  • Corticotropin-like intermediate peptide
    Corticotropin-like intermediate [lobe] peptide (CLIP), also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone fragment 18-39 (ACTH(18-39)), is a naturally-occurring, endogenous neuropeptide with a docosapeptide structure and the amino acid sequence Arg-Pro-Val-Lys-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asn-Gly-Ala-Glu-Asp-Glu-Ser-Ala-Glu-Ala-Phe-Pro-Leu-Glu-Phe.
  • Eledoisin
    Eledoisin is an undecapeptide of mollusk origin, belonging to the tachykinin family of neuropeptides.
  • Physalaemin
    Physalaemin is a tachykinin peptide obtained from the Physalaemus frog, closely related to substance P.
  • Neurokinin B
    Neurokinin B (NKB) belongs in the family of tachykinin peptides.
  • Neuromedin B
    Neuromedin B (NMB) is a bombesin-related peptide in mammals.
  • Hemopressin
    Hemopressin (Hp) is an alpha hemoglobin fragment with the sequence PVNFKFLSH, originally identified in extracts of rat brain using an enzyme capture technique.
  • RVD-Hpα
    RVD-Hpα is an endogenous neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, which was originally proposed to act as a selective agonist for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor.
  • Galanin
    Galanin is a neuropeptide encoded by the GAL gene, that is widely expressed in the brain, spinal cord, and gut of humans as well as other mammals.
  • Neuropeptide Y
    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid neuropeptide that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain and in the autonomic nervous system of humans; slight variations of the peptide are found in many other animals.
  • Neurotensin
    Neurotensin is a 13 amino acid neuropeptide that is implicated in the regulation of luteinizing hormone and prolactin release and has significant interaction with the dopaminergic system.
  • Alpha-Endorphin
    α-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid peptide with a length of 16 amino acids, and the amino acid sequence: Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met-Thr-Ser-Glu-Lys-Ser-Gln-Thr-Pro-Leu-Val-Thr.
  • Dynorphin B
    Dynorphin B, also known as rimorphin, is a form of dynorphin and an endogenous opioid peptide with the amino acid sequence Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-Arg-Arg-Gln-Phe-Lys-Val-Val-Thr.
  • Gamma-Endorphin
    γ-Endorphin is an opioid peptide that is characterized by the presence of 17 amino acids.
  • Galnon
    Galnon is a drug which acts as a selective, non-peptide agonist at the galanin receptors GALR.
  • Galmic
    Galmic is a drug which acts as a selective, non-peptide agonist at the galanin receptors GALR.
  • Endomorphin-1
    Endomorphin-1 (EM-1) (amino acid sequence Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2) is an endogenous opioid peptide and one of the two endomorphins.
  • Endomorphin-2
    Endomorphin-2 (EM-2) (amino acid sequence Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) is an endogenous opioid peptide and one of the two endomorphins.