Molecular biology

2017-07-31T17:57:02+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true DNA profiling, DNA footprinting, Fibrillarin, Fluorescence, Gel electrophoresis, Gene therapy, Genetic code, Nucleotide, Plasmid, Protein, Reverse transcriptase, Transcription (genetics), Transformation (genetics), G protein–coupled receptor, Long interspersed nuclear element, Plant breeding, History of molecular biology, Restriction enzyme, Small interfering RNA, Biopolymer, RNA-Seq, ZMapp, Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside, Transposase, Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, Photodegradation, Micrococcal nuclease, ChIP-on-chip, Myokine, FAD dependent oxidoreductase family, Phosphodiesterase 3, Upstream and downstream (DNA), Cell–cell fusogens, Mitotoxin, Propidium monoazide, Intracellular, EcoRI, P-bodies, BamHI, Post-transcriptional regulation, Viral transformation, DNA repair protein XRCC4, DNA ligase, Deoxycytidine triphosphate, EcoRV, RecBCD, Orosomucoid, Cre recombinase, Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation, Complement component 5a, SNP array, HindIII, Homing endonuclease, Ribonuclease H, SnRNP, Fluorescence in the life sciences, BglII, R.EcoRII, BSD domain, BpuJI, Btk-type zinc finger, Cfr10I/Bse634I, Ankyrin-G binding motif of KCNQ2-3 flashcards Molecular biology
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  • DNA profiling
    DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is a forensic technique used to identify individuals by characteristics of their DNA.
  • DNA footprinting
    DNA footprinting is a method of investigating the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins in vitro.
  • Fibrillarin
    rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FBL gene.
  • Fluorescence
    Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
  • Gel electrophoresis
    Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.
  • Gene therapy
    Gene therapy is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid polymers into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
  • Genetic code
    The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) is translated into proteins by living cells.
  • Nucleotide
    Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid).
  • Plasmid
    A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
  • Protein
    Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ᵻnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
  • Reverse transcriptase
    A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
  • Transcription (genetics)
    Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
  • Transformation (genetics)
    In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
  • G protein–coupled receptor
    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) which are also known as seven-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors, that sense molecules outside the cell and activate inside signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
  • Long interspersed nuclear element
    Long interspersed elements (LINEs) are a group of non-LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons which are widespread in the genome of many eukaryotes.
  • Plant breeding
    Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics.
  • History of molecular biology
    The history of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological and physical disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, virology and physics.
  • Restriction enzyme
    A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cuts DNA at or near specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sites.
  • Small interfering RNA
    Small interfering RNA (siRNA), sometimes known as short interfering RNA or silencing RNA, is a class of double-stranded RNA molecules, 20-25 base pairs in length.
  • Biopolymer
    Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.
  • RNA-Seq
    RNA-Seq (RNA sequencing), also called whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (WTSS), uses next-generation sequencing (NGS) to reveal the presence and quantity of RNA in a biological sample at a given moment in time.
  • ZMapp
    ZMapp is an experimental biopharmaceutical drug comprising three chimeric monoclonal antibodies under development as a treatment for Ebola virus disease.
  • Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside
    Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) is a molecular biology reagent.
  • Transposase
    Transposase is an enzyme that binds to the end of a transposon and catalyzes the movement of the transposon to another part of the genome by a cut and paste mechanism or a replicative transposition mechanism.
  • Ombitasvir
    Ombitasvir is an antiviral drug for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
  • Paritaprevir
    Paritaprevir (previously known as ABT-450) is an acylsulfonamide inhibitor of the NS3-4A serine protease manufactured by Abbott Laboratories that shows promising results as a treatment of hepatitis C.
  • Photodegradation
    Photo-degradation is the alteration of materials by light.
  • Micrococcal nuclease
    Micrococcal Nuclease (EC 3.1.31.1, S7 Nuclease, MNase, spleen endonuclease, thermonuclease, nuclease T, micrococcal endonuclease, nuclease T', staphylococcal nuclease, spleen phosphodiesterase, Staphylococcus aureus nuclease, Staphylococcus aureus nuclease B, ribonucleate (deoxynucleate) 3'-nucleotidohydrolase) is an endo-exonuclease that preferentially digests single-stranded nucleic acids.
  • ChIP-on-chip
    ChIP-on-chip (also known as ChIP-chip) is a technology that combines chromatin immunoprecipitation ('ChIP') with DNA microarray ("chip").
  • Myokine
    A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.
  • FAD dependent oxidoreductase family
    In molecular biology, the FAD dependent oxidoreductase family of proteins is a family of FAD dependent oxidoreductases.
  • Phosphodiesterase 3
    PDE3 is a phosphodiesterase.
  • Upstream and downstream (DNA)
    In molecular biology and genetics, upstream and downstream both refer to a relative position in DNA or RNA.
  • Cell–cell fusogens
    Cell–cell fusogens are glycoproteins that facilitate the fusion of cell to cell membranes.
  • Mitotoxin
    A mitotoxin is a cytotoxic molecule targeted to specific cells by a mitogen.
  • Propidium monoazide
    Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a photoreactive DNA-binding dye that preferentially binds to dsDNA.
  • Intracellular
    In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
  • EcoRI
    EcoRI (pronounced, "eco R one") is a restriction endonuclease enzyme isolated from species E.
  • P-bodies
    Processing bodies (P-bodies) are distinct foci within the cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell consisting of many enzymes involved in mRNA turnover.
  • BamHI
    BamH I (from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) is a type II restriction endonuclease, having the capacity for recognizing short sequences (6 b.p.) of DNA and specifically cleaving them at a target site.
  • Post-transcriptional regulation
    Post-transcriptional regulation is the control of gene expression at the RNA level, therefore between the transcription and the translation of the gene.
  • Viral transformation
    Viral transformation can occur both naturally and medically.
  • DNA repair protein XRCC4
    DNA repair protein XRCC4 also known as X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 or XRCC4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the XRCC4 gene.
  • DNA ligase
    In molecular biology, DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, (EC 6.5.1.1) that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond.
  • Deoxycytidine triphosphate
    Deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) is a nucleoside triphosphate that contains the pyrimidine base cytosine.
  • EcoRV
    EcoRV (pronounced "eco R five") is a type II restriction endonuclease isolated from certain strains of Escherichia coli.
  • RecBCD
    RecBCD (EC 3.1.11.5, Exonuclease V, Escherichia coli exonuclease V, E. coli exonuclease V, gene recBC endoenzyme, RecBC deoxyribonuclease, gene recBC DNase, gene recBCD enzymes) is an enzyme of the E.
  • Orosomucoid
    Orosomucoid (ORM) or alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp, AGP or AAG) is an acute phase (acute phase protein) plasma alpha-globulin glycoprotein and is modulated by two polymorphic genes.
  • Cre recombinase
    Cre recombinase is a tyrosine recombinase enzyme derived from the P1 Bacteriophage.
  • Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation
    Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP or mDIP) is a large-scale (chromosome- or genome-wide) purification technique in molecular biology that is used to enrich for methylated DNA sequences.
  • Complement component 5a
    C5a is a protein fragment released from cleavage of complement component C5 by protease C5-convertase into C5a and C5b fragments.
  • SNP array
    In molecular biology and bioinformatics, SNP array is a type of DNA microarray which is used to detect polymorphisms within a population.
  • HindIII
    HindIII (pronounced "Hin D Three") is a type II site-specific deoxyribonuclease restriction enzyme isolated from Haemophilus influenzae that cleaves the DNA palindromic sequence AAGCTT in the presence of the cofactor Mg2+ via hydrolysis.
  • Homing endonuclease
    The homing endonucleases are a collection of endonucleases encoded either as freestanding genes within introns, as fusions with host proteins, or as self-splicing inteins.
  • Ribonuclease H
    Ribonuclease H (RNase H) is a family of non-sequence-specific endonucleases that catalyze the cleavage of RNA via a hydrolytic mechanism.
  • SnRNP
    snRNPs (pronounced "snurps"), or small nuclear ribonucleo proteins, are RNA-protein complexes that combine with unmodified pre-mRNA and various other proteins to form a spliceosome, a large RNA-protein molecular complex upon which splicing of pre-mRNA occurs.
  • Fluorescence in the life sciences
    Fluorescence is used in the life sciences generally as a non-destructive way of tracking or analysing biological molecules by means of fluorescence.
  • BglII
    BglII (pronounced "begel two") is a type II restriction endonuclease enzyme isolated from certain strains of Bacillus globigii.
  • R.EcoRII
    Restriction endonuclease (REase) EcoRII (pronounced "eco R two") is an enzyme of restriction modification system (RM) naturally found in Escherichia coli, a Gram-negative bacteria.
  • BSD domain
    In molecular biology, the BSD domain is an approximately 60-amino-acid-long protein domain named after the BTF2-like transcription factors, synapse-associated proteins and DOS2-like proteins in which it is found.
  • BpuJI
    In molecular biology, BpuJI is a type II restriction endonuclease which recognises the asymmetric sequence 5'-CCCGT and cuts at multiple sites in the surrounding area of the target sequence.
  • Btk-type zinc finger
    In molecular biology, the Btk-type zinc finger or Btk motif (BM) is a conserved zinc-binding motif containing conserved cysteines and a histidine that is present in certain eukaryotic signalling proteins.
  • Cfr10I/Bse634I
    In molecular biology, the Cfr10I/Bse634I family of restriction endonucleases includes the type II restriction endonucleases Cfr10I and Bse634I.
  • Ankyrin-G binding motif of KCNQ2-3
    In molecular biology, the ankyrin-G binding motif of KCNQ2-3 is a protein motif found in the potassium channels KCNQ2 and KCNQ3.