In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform.
Austenite, also known as gamma-phase iron (γ-Fe), is a metallic, non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron, with an alloying element.
Martensite, named after the German metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850–1914), most commonly refers to a very hard form of steel crystalline structure, but it can also refer to any crystal structure that is formed by diffusionless transformation.
Soldering (AmE: /ˈsɒdərɪŋ/, BrE: /ˈsɒldərɪŋ/), is a process in which two or more items (usually metal) are joined together by melting and putting a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.
Electrotyping (also galvanoplasty) is a chemical method for forming metal parts that exactly reproduce a model.
An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element.
Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material.
A shape-memory alloy (SMA, smart metal, memory metal, memory alloy, muscle wire, smart alloy) is an alloy that "remembers" its original shape and that when deformed returns to its pre-deformed shape when heated.
An amorphous metal (also known as metallic glass or glassy metal) is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy, with a disordered atomic-scale structure.
Cementite, also known as iron carbide, is an intermetallic compound of iron and carbon, more precisely an intermediate transition metal carbide with the formula Fe3C.
Coke is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content, usually made from coal.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
A phase diagram in physical chemistry, engineering, mineralogy, and materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions (pressure, temperature, volume, etc.) at which thermodynamically distinct phases occur and coexist at equilibrium.
Powder metallurgy (PM) is a term covering a wide range of ways in which materials or components are made from metal powders.
Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
Carburizing, carburising (chiefly British English), or carburization is a heat treatment process in which iron or steel absorbs carbon while the metal is heated in the presence of a carbon bearing material, such as charcoal or carbon monoxide.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Anodizing (also spelled anodising, particularly in the UK, India and Australia) is an electrolytic passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural oxide layer on the surface of metal parts.
A cupola or cupola furnace is a melting device used in foundries that can be used to melt cast iron, ni-resist iron and some bronzes.
An ingot is a piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.
A metal foam is a cellular structure consisting of a solid metal (frequently aluminium) with gas-filled pores comprising a large portion of the volume.
A fluidized bed is a physical phenomenon occurring when a quantity of a solid particulate substance (usually present in a holding vessel) is placed under appropriate conditions to cause a solid/fluid mixture to behave as a fluid.
Roll slitting is a shearing operation that cuts a large roll of material into narrower rolls.
Bimetal refers to an object that is composed of two separate metals joined together.
Oxy-fuel welding and cutting
Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively.
A rotary kiln is a pyroprocessing device used to raise materials to a high temperature (calcination) in a continuous process.
Continuous casting, also called strand casting, is the process whereby molten metal is solidified into a "semifinished" billet, bloom, or slab for subsequent rolling in the finishing mills.
Patina (/ˈpætᵻnə/ or /pəˈtiːnə/) is a thin layer that variously forms on the surface of stone; on copper, bronze and similar metals (tarnish produced by oxidation or other chemical processes); on wooden furniture (sheen produced by age, wear, and polishing); or any such acquired change of a surface through age and exposure.
Scrap consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, and surplus materials.
Chrome plating (less commonly chromium plating), often referred to simply as chrome, is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of chromium onto a metal or plastic object.
Nitriding is a heat treating process that diffuses nitrogen into the surface of a metal to create a case-hardened surface.
Metal production in Ukraine
Metal production, in particular iron and steel industry, is the dominant heavy industry in Ukraine.
Rasaratna Samuccaya, also known as Rasaratna Samuchchaya (Sanskrit: रसरत्न समुच्चय), is a scientific text written during the Tantric period in India.
Metal whiskering is a phenomenon which occurs in electrical devices.
In metalworking, casting means a process, in which liquid metal is poured into a mold, that contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to cool and solidify.
In metallurgy, a non-ferrous metal is a metal, including alloys, that does not contain iron (ferrite) in appreciable amounts.
Microstructure is the small scale structure of a material, defined as the structure of a prepared surface of material as revealed by a microscope above 25× magnification.
A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides.