Membrane biology

2017-07-29T06:49:30+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Platelet-derived growth factor receptor, G protein–coupled receptor, Chorioallantoic membrane, Mucous membrane, Active transport, Biofilm, Amnion, Phosphatidylserine, Osmosis, Protocell, N-Acetylmuramic acid, Action potential, G protein, Heterotrimeric G protein, Perylene, Connexon, Sarcolemma, Peptidoglycan, Phosphatidylinositol, Lecithin, Glycocalyx, Serous membrane, Cell membrane, T-tubule, Glycolipid, Lipid bilayer, PNGase F, Podosome, Talin protein, Mucous membrane of the soft palate, Muscular layer, Tetraspanin, Lipid bilayer mechanics, Bacterial outer membrane, L-type calcium channel, Transient receptor potential channel, P-type calcium channel, P300-CBP coactivator family, M2 proton channel, G12/G13 alpha subunits, GLUT8, Gs alpha subunit, Submucosa, Membrane Protein Structural Dynamics Consortium, Subserosa, Q-type calcium channel, P-type ATPase, Node of Ranvier, N-Acetylglucosamine, N-Acetylgalactosamine, Magnesium transporter, Depolarization, Inner membrane, Gq alpha subunit, Membrane nanotube, Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channel, M1 protein, Calcium 2-aminoethylphosphate, Na+/K+-ATPase, Muscularis mucosae flashcards Membrane biology
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  • Platelet-derived growth factor receptor
    Platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-R) are cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors for members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family.
  • G protein–coupled receptor
    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) which are also known as seven-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors, that sense molecules outside the cell and activate inside signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
  • Chorioallantoic membrane
    The chorioallantoic membrane — also called the chorioallantois or abbreviated to CAM — is a vascular membrane found in eggs of some amniotes, such as birds and reptiles.
  • Mucous membrane
    A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and surrounds internal organs.
  • Active transport
    Active transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against some gradient or other obstructing factor (often a concentration gradient).
  • Biofilm
    A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often these cells adhere to a surface.
  • Amnion
    The amnion is a membrane that closely covers the embryo when first formed.
  • Phosphatidylserine
    Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane.
  • Osmosis
    Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
  • Protocell
    A protocell (or protobiont) is a self-organized, endogenously ordered, spherical collection of lipids proposed as a stepping-stone to the origin of life.
  • N-Acetylmuramic acid
    N-Acetylmuramic acid, or MurNAc, is the ether of lactic acid and N-acetylglucosamine with a chemical formula of C11H19NO8.
  • Action potential
    In physiology, an action potential is a short-lasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls, following a consistent trajectory.
  • G protein
    G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
  • Heterotrimeric G protein
    "G protein" usually refers to the membrane-associated heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins (as opposed to the subclass of smaller, monomeric small GTPases) .
  • Perylene
    Perylene or perilene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C20H12, occurring as a brown solid.
  • Connexon
    In biology, a connexon, also known as a connexin hemichannel or a pannexin channel, is an assembly of six proteins called connexins that form the pore for a gap junction between the cytoplasm of two adjacent cells.
  • Sarcolemma
    The sarcolemma (sarco (from sarx) from Greek; flesh, and lemma from Greek; sheath.) also called the myolemma, is the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber cell.
  • Peptidoglycan
    Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.
  • Phosphatidylinositol
    Phosphatidylinositol consists of a family of lipids as illustrated on the right, a class of the phosphatidylglycerides.
  • Lecithin
    Lecithin (from the Greek lekithos, "egg yolk") is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, which are amphiphilic - they attract both water and fatty substances (and so are both hydrophilic and lipophilic), and are used for smoothing food textures, dissolving powders (emulsifiers), homogenizing liquid mixtures, and repelling sticking materials.
  • Glycocalyx
    The glycocalyx is a glycoprotein-polysaccharide covering that surrounds the cell membranes of some bacteria, epithelia and other cells.
  • Serous membrane
    In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth membrane consisting of two layers of epithelial cells (as membranes), which secrete serous fluid.
  • Cell membrane
    The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment.
  • T-tubule
    A T-tubule (or transverse tubule) is a deep invagination of the sarcolemma, which is the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle cells.
  • Glycolipid
    Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic bond.
  • Lipid bilayer
    The lipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
  • PNGase F
    Peptide:N-Glycosidase F, commonly referred to as PNGase F, is an amidase of the peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase class.
  • Podosome
    Podosomes are conical, actin-rich structures found on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of animal cells.
  • Talin protein
    Talin is a high-molecular-weight cytoskeletal protein concentrated at regions of cell–substratum contact and, in lymphocytes, at cell–cell contacts.
  • Mucous membrane of the soft palate
    The mucous membrane of the soft palate is thin, and covered with stratified squamous epithelium on both surfaces, except near the pharyngeal ostium of the auditory tube, where it is columnar and ciliated.
  • Muscular layer
    The muscular layer (muscular coat, muscular fibers, muscularis propria, muscularis externa) is a region of muscle in many organs in the vertebrate body, adjacent to the submucosa.
  • Tetraspanin
    Tetraspanins are a family of membrane proteins found in all multicellular eukaryotes.
  • Lipid bilayer mechanics
    Lipid bilayer mechanics is the study of the physical material properties of lipid bilayers, classifying bilayer behavior with stress and strain rather than biochemical interactions.
  • Bacterial outer membrane
    The bacterial outer membrane is found in gram-negative bacteria.
  • L-type calcium channel
    The L-type calcium channel (also known as the dihydropyridine channel, or DHP channel) is part of the high-voltage activated family of voltage-dependent calcium channel.
  • Transient receptor potential channel
    Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are a group of ion channels located mostly on the plasma membrane of numerous animal cell types.
  • P-type calcium channel
    The P-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel.
  • P300-CBP coactivator family
    The p300-CBP coactivator family is composed of two closely related transcriptional co-activating proteins (or coactivators): 1.
  • M2 proton channel
    The Matrix-2 (M2) protein is a proton-selective ion channel protein, integral in the viral envelope of the influenza A virus.
  • G12/G13 alpha subunits
    G12/G13 subunits are alpha units of heterotrimeric G proteins that regulate cell processes through the use of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.
  • GLUT8
    GLUT8 also known as SLC2A8 is the eighth member of glucose transporter superfamily.
  • Gs alpha subunit
    The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
  • Submucosa
    The submucosa (or tela submucosa) is a thin layer of tissue in various organs of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts.
  • Membrane Protein Structural Dynamics Consortium
    The Membrane Protein Structural Dynamics Consortium (MPSDC) is a large scale collaborative consortium composed of an interdisciplinary team of scientists who use biophysical and computational methods to understand how the structure and movement of membrane proteins determine their functions.
  • Subserosa
    The tela subserosa (or just subserosa) is a thin layer of tissue in the walls of various organs.
  • Q-type calcium channel
    The Q-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel.
  • P-type ATPase
    The P-type ATPases, also known as E1-E2 ATPases, are a large group of evolutionarily related ion and lipid pumps that are found in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.
  • Node of Ranvier
    Nodes of Ranvier, also known as myelin sheath gaps, are periodic gaps in the insulating myelin sheaths of myelinated axons where the axonal membrane is exposed to the extracellular space.
  • N-Acetylglucosamine
    N-Acetylglucosamine (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, or GlcNAc, or NAG) is a monosaccharide and a derivative of glucose.
  • N-Acetylgalactosamine
    N-Acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), is an amino sugar derivative of galactose.
  • Magnesium transporter
    Magnesium transporters are proteins that transport magnesium across the cell membrane.
  • Depolarization
    In biology, depolarization is a sudden change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a dramatic electrical change.
  • Inner membrane
    The inner membrane of the nuclear envelope is connected to the outer nuclear envelope membrane through nuclear pores.
  • Gq alpha subunit
    Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).
  • Membrane nanotube
    The term Membrane nanotubes, membrane nanotubules or cytoneme has been applied to protrusions that extend from the plasma membrane that enable different animal cells to touch over long distances, sometimes over 100 μm between T cells.
  • Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channel
    Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channels or CNG channels are ion channels that function in response to the binding of cyclic nucleotides.
  • M1 protein
    The M1 protein is a matrix protein of the influenza virus.
  • Calcium 2-aminoethylphosphate
    Calcium 2-aminoethylphosphate (Ca-AEP or Ca-2AEP) is a vital component in the structure of cell membranes in the human body.
  • Na+/K+-ATPase
    Na+/K+-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the Na+/K+ pump or sodium-potassium pump) is an enzyme (EC 3.6.3.9) (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
  • Muscularis mucosae
    The lamina muscularis mucosae (or muscularis mucosae) is a thin layer (lamina) of muscle of the gastrointestinal tract, located outside the lamina propria mucosae and separating it from the submucosa.