2019-10-26T13:43:07+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true what is management?, what is the process of management, what is planning?, what is organising?, what is leading?, controlling, what characterises organisational performance, what are the 3 management skills?, what is conceptual skills?, what are human skills?, what are technical skills?, what are manager roles?, what is decisional management roles?, what are interpersonal roles?, what are informational roles?, what is classical perspective?, what is scientific management?, what is bureaucratic organisations?, what is administrative principles?, what is humanistic perspective?, what is the human relations movement?, what is indicated in the hawthorne studies?, what is human resources perspective?, what is theory x and theory y, what is behavioral sciences approach?, what is the management science perspective?, what is systems thinking?, what is contingency view?, what is total quality management?, external environment, general environment, task environment, how can organisations adapt to the external environment, what comprises the internal environment?, what is organisational culture?, what are the 2 levels of culture, adaptability culture, achievement culture, involvement culture, consistency culture, cultural leadership, stages of globalisation, global mindset, multinational corporations (MNC), international tactics, managerial ethics, domains of human action, utilitarian approach, individualisim, moral rights, justice approach, practical approach, moral development, corporate social responsibility, green movement, EVALUATION OF CSR, managing company ethics, levels of goals and plans, planning process, criteria for effective goals, management by Objectives, benefits and implications of MBO, contingency planning, scenario planning, crisis planning, strategic management, elements of competitive advantage, levels of strategy, corporate level strategy formulation, porters 5 competiive forces, functional level strategy, organisational structure, work specialisation, authority and key charactersitics, tall structure vs flat structure, centralisation, decentralised, formalisation, departmentalisation, vertical functional approach to departmentalisation and analysis, divisional approach of departmentalisation and analysis, matrix approach, team based, network approach, factors shaping structure, human resources, human resource management, strategic human resource management, HRM planning, attract effective workforce, recruiting process, selecting HRM, development of effective workforce, performance appraisal, leadership, level 5 leadership, servant leadership, authentic leadership, management vs leadership, behavioural approaches flashcards
Management test questions

Management test questions

  • what is management?
    The organisation and coordination of the activities of a business in order to achieve defined objectives.
  • what is the process of management
    resources-> (planning, organising, leading, controlling)-> performance
  • what is planning?
    defining goals for future organisational performance, deciding on tasks, and resources needed
  • what is organising?
    resource allocation, task assingment and departmentalisation
  • what is leading?
    influencing employees to achieve organisational objectives
  • controlling
    Monitoring employees activities, tracking organisation towards its goals
  • what characterises organisational performance
    effectiveness (extent organisation achieves objectives) and efficiency (resources used in order to fulfil objectives)
  • what are the 3 management skills?
    conceptual, human, technical
  • what is conceptual skills?
    ability to see organisational as whole, with interdependent relationships
  • what are human skills?
    ability to work with and through others. be an effective team member
  • what are technical skills?
    industry specific skills, analytical skills. performance of specific task
  • what are manager roles?
    informational, interpersonal, decisional
  • what is decisional management roles?
    entrepeneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator
  • what are interpersonal roles?
    figurehead, leader, liason
  • what are informational roles?
    monitor, disseminator, spokesperson
  • what is classical perspective?
    Emerged during the 19th and early 20th centuries as a response to new problems arising from industrialisation (environmental forces)
  • what is scientific management?
    Develop standard method for performing each job Select and train workers Support workers (careful planning) Provide incentives (wages)
  • what is bureaucratic organisations?
    Originated by Max Weber • Focused on:–Rational authorityand formal structure–Employee selection and advancement based on merit rather than ‘who you know’ –Rules and written records –Authority based on position/legal power
  • what is administrative principles?
     Unity of command • Division of work • Scalar chain • Unity of directiontotal organisation focus
  • what is humanistic perspective?
    Emphasised the importance of understandinghuman behaviours, needs and attitudesin the workplace
  • what is the human relations movement?
    Suggests effective control comes from within individuals, not adherence to strict, authoritarian control
  • what is indicated in the hawthorne studies?
    Highlighted positive link between humane treatment ofworkers and productivity
  • what is human resources perspective?
    Further developed the idea of considerate leadershipand worker participation• Combines prescriptions forjob design and theories of motivation
  • what is theory x and theory y
    THEORY X assumptionshumans dislike workmust coerce, control, direct and punish in order to achieve organisational objectivesperfers to be directed, avoids responsibilityTHEORY Y assumptionsphysical and mental effort is naturalexternal control is not the only effective way of bringing humans to achieve organisational objectiveslearns and accepts responsibilitycreativity, imagination etc, are common in problem solvinghumans are not at full capacity in industrialised society
  • what is behavioral sciences approach?
    use of sociolog, econimics and psychology in organisational context
  • what is the management science perspective?
    quantitative techniques to assist with organisational problesm
  • what is systems thinking?
    open systems, entropy, synergy, interdependence in systems
  • what is contingency view?
    what works in one situation doesnt work in another. each case is unique
  • what is total quality management?
    employee involvement, customer focus, benchmarking, continuous improvement
  • external environment
    outside organisational boundaries, General and Task
  • general environment
    international, technological, socio cultural, legal-political, natural environment, (not day to day or directly impacting)
  • task environment
    CustomersCompetitorsSuppliersLabour market
  • how can organisations adapt to the external environment
    Boundary spanning roles, forecasting and planning, interorganisational partnerships, mergers and JVS
  • what comprises the internal environment?
    Corporate/organisational cultureProduction technologyOrganisation structurePhysical facilities
  • what is organisational culture?
    Refers to the shared knowledge, beliefs, values, behaviours and ways of thinking among members of the organisations
  • what are the 2 levels of culture
    visible (tangible) and invisible *assumptions and beleifs)
  • adaptability culture
    decentralised decision making, fast response, creativity and innovation
  • achievement culture
    results orientated,Values competitiveness, personal initiative, cost-cutting and achievement
  • involvement culture
    Values cooperation, consideration  and equality
  • consistency culture
    Values and rewards a methodical, rational, orderly way of doing things:Following rulesBeing thrifty
  • cultural leadership
    Influence culture in two key areas:Articulation of a vision for the organisational culture that employees can believe in.Heeds the day-to-day activities that reinforce the cultural vision.
  • stages of globalisation
    1. domestic2. international3. multinational stage4. global
  • global mindset
    Genuine interest and curiosity in other culturesOpen-mindednessAbility to deal with ambiguity and complexity
  • multinational corporations (MNC)
    >25% sales overseas
  • international tactics
    Exportingselling overseasoutsourcingforieng nation doing part of businesslicensingfranchising etcdirect investingsubsiadaries
  • managerial ethics
    Refers to the code of moral principles and values that governs managerial behaviour and decision making
  • domains of human action
    domain of codified law <-domain of ethics<-domain of social standards
  • utilitarian approach
    greatest good for greatest amount
  • individualisim
    individuals long term best interests
  • moral rights
    free consentfreedom of speech
  • justice approach
    equity, fairness and impartialityDistributivedifferent treatment is not based on characteristicsproceduralfair enforcement of rulescompensatorycompensation of injuries incurred by party responsible
  • practical approach
    standards of profession, larger society, industry
  • moral development
    pre-conventionalinside law, avoiding punishmentconventionalsocial standardspost conventionalpersonal standards
  • corporate social responsibility
    the obligation of organisation management to make decisions and take actions that will enhance the welfare and interests of society as well as the organisatio
  • green movement
    economic development, inficuing wealth and meets needs of population, and allowing for future sustainability
    ECONOMICSprofitLEGALobey lawethicaldo what is rightdiscretionarycontributing to community
  • managing company ethics
    ethical leadership, code of ethics, ethical structure, support whistleblowers
  • levels of goals and plans
    Strategic goals• Pertain to the organisation as a whole.–Tactical goals• Relevant to specific part of organisation–Operational goals• Developed at lower levels that specify action steps towards achieving organisational goals that support tactical planning activities
  • planning process
    develop the plan, translate plan, plan operations, execute plan, monitor and learn (this is a cycle)
  • criteria for effective goals
    1. Are specific and measurable2. Have a defined time period 3. Cover key result areas 4. Are challenging yet achievable 5. Are linked to rewards
  • management by Objectives
    MBO–Set goals (involves all employees at all levels)–Develop action plans –Review progress–Appraise overall performance
  • benefits and implications of MBO
    Focuses manager and employee efforts on activities that will lead to goal attainment• Can improve performance at all levels• Improves employee motivation • Aligns individual and departmental company goalsProblems occur when MBO is used inappropriately–Over-emphasis on goal attainment can lead to cutting corners• MBO is not a stand-alone plan • Alternative is MBM–Management by means which focuses attention on the methods and processes used to achieve goals
  • contingency planning
    Defines organisation response to specific situations such as emergencies, setbacks or unexpected conditions
  • scenario planning
    Possible scenarios based on extrapolating from current trends and considering future discontinuities
  • crisis planning
    Preventiondetectionrelationship buildingPreperationcrisis management teamdetailed crisis management plancommunications systemContainmentrapid responseget truth outmeet safety and emptional needsreturn to business
  • strategic management
    –A plan of action describing resource allocation and activities for:• dealing with the environment • Achieving a competitive advantage • Attaining goal
  • elements of competitive advantage
    target customers, core compentence exploitations, achieve synergy, create value
  • levels of strategy
    corporate levelswhat business are we in?business levelhow do we competefunctionalhow do we support business level strategy
  • corporate level strategy formulation
    portfolioRelates to the organisation’s mix of strategic business units and product lines that fit together in such a way as to provide the organisation with synergy and competitive advantageBCG matrixdiversificationnew lines of business, vertical integration (expansing into supplies, distribution etc)
    portfolioRelates to the organisation’s mix of strategic business units and product lines that fit together in such a way as to provide the organisation with synergy and competitive advantageBCG matrixdiversificationnew lines of business, vertical integration (expansing into supplies, distribution etc)
  • porters 5 competiive forces
    business level strategypotential new entrantssubstitute productsbuyerssuppliersstrategiesdifferentiatecost leadershipfocus
  • functional level strategy
    aligning plans to business level strategies
  • organisational structure
    he set of formal tasks assigned to individuals and departments 2. Formal reporting relationships 3. The design of systems to ensure effective coordination of employees acrossdepartments
  • work specialisation
    Refers to the degree to which organisational tasks are subdivided into individual jobs, or division of labourincrease efficienctreduces motivationsilo effects
  • authority and key charactersitics
    Refers to the formal and legitimate right of a manager to make decisions, issue orders and allocate resources to achieve organisationally desired outcomeKey characteristics:1. Authority is vested in organisational positions, not people2. Authority flows down the vertical hierarchy 3. Authority is accepted by subordinate
  • tall structure vs flat structure
    Tall structure• Narrow span of control • More hierarchical levels • Slower decision makingFlat structure Trend toward this • Broader span of control • Relatively few hierarchical levels
  • centralisation
    decision authority at top levels
  • decentralised
    decision authority lower in organisation
  • formalisation
    formal document used to direct and control employees
  • departmentalisation
    The basis on which individuals are grouped intodepartment and departments into total organisations
  • vertical functional approach to departmentalisation and analysis
    Positions grouped into departments based on similar skills, expertise and resource usebenefitseconomies of scaledevelopment of skillscareers progressionsynergysmaller organisation suitabilityimplicationsslower responseidentify with function rather than whole of organisationpoor communication and coordinationpoliticking between dept
  • divisional approach of departmentalisation and analysis
    similiar organisational outputself containedproductspecialise on each productinternationaldivide into autonomous geographical areaslocal responsivenessadvanatagesfast foster customer needsexcellent cross functional dept coordinationaccountabilityoverall product and dividion focusgeneal management skill developmentdisadvantagesduplication of resourcesless specialisationpoor coordination in divisionsless management controlcompetition for resources (within organisation)
  • matrix approach
    functional and divisional chainsdual commandoften global use
  • team based
    fosters flexibility and quicker response
  • network approach
    central hub and external specialists
  • factors shaping structure
    follow strategyreflects the environmentfits technology
  • human resources
    the personnel of a business or organization, especially when regarded as a significant asset.
  • human resource management
    attract, develop and maintain effective workforce
  • strategic human resource management
    find right people, management of talent and maintain effective workforce
  • HRM planning
    recruiting, selecting and managing of talent
  • attract effective workforce
    hr planning, choose recruiting source, select, welcome
  • recruiting process
    job analysisgathering and interpreting about essential duties, tasks and responsibilitiesdescriptionconcise summary of tasks and responsiblitiesspecificationknowledge skills, education and capabilities needed
  • selecting HRM
    The process of determining the skills, abilities and other attributes a person needs to perform a particular job
  • development of effective workforce
    on the jobsocial learningmentoring and coaching
  • performance appraisal
    evaluation of employee performance, providing feedback360 degress, multiple raters and self assesment
  • leadership
    ability to influence people to attain organisational objectives
  • level 5 leadership
    hierachy of management capabilties, top level being level 5 where no self ego, and doing all to do what is best for organisation
  • servant leadership
    serve others, organisation and societyfulfil subordinates needs and goalsdo waht is best for overall organisation
  • authentic leadership
    leading with head and heart
  • management vs leadership
    management promotes stabilityi and efficiency whereas leadership induces engagement and change to meet new and uncertain conditions
  • behavioural approaches
    leadership behavior and the extent it contributes to success and failurepeopletask