Kidney diseases

2017-07-28T19:55:18+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Hydronephrosis, Chronic kidney disease, Acute kidney injury, Diabetic nephropathy, Goodpasture syndrome, Glomerulonephritis, Pyelonephritis, Renal tubular acidosis, Pyonephrosis, Nephroptosis, Nephrotic syndrome, Polycystic kidney disease, Uremia, IgA nephropathy, Nephritic syndrome, Cystinuria, Fanconi syndrome, Renal cell carcinoma, Dent's disease, Tubulopathy, Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, Bright's disease, Horseshoe kidney, Renal agenesis, Renal cyst, Medullary sponge kidney, Contrast-induced nephropathy, Thin basement membrane disease, High anion gap metabolic acidosis, Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, Kidney stone disease, Abderhalden–Kaufmann–Lignac syndrome, Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis, Analgesic nephropathy, Balkan endemic nephropathy, Distal renal tubular acidosis, Gitelman syndrome, Hypertensive nephropathy, Interstitial nephritis, Lupus nephritis, Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, Proximal renal tubular acidosis, Renal osteodystrophy, Renal papillary necrosis, Multicystic dysplastic kidney, Cardiorenal syndrome, HIV-associated nephropathy, Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, Nutcracker syndrome, Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, Renal artery stenosis, Renal vein thrombosis, Congenital nephrotic syndrome, Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Membranous glomerulonephritis, Nephrosis, Secondary hypertension, Papillorenal syndrome, Transplant glomerulopathy, Alport syndrome, Milk-alkali syndrome, Nephromegaly, Lightwood–Albright syndrome, Nephrocalcinosis, Medullary cystic kidney disease, Conorenal syndrome, Serpentine fibula-polycystic kidney syndrome, EAST syndrome, Fraley syndrome, Galloway Mowat syndrome, Cystic kidney disease, Bardoxolone methyl, Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis, Glomerulocystic kidney disease flashcards Kidney diseases
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  • Hydronephrosis
    Hydronephrosis — literally "water inside the kidney" — refers to distension and dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces, usually caused by obstruction of the free flow of urine from the kidney.
  • Chronic kidney disease
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years.
  • Acute kidney injury
    Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops within 7 days.
  • Diabetic nephropathy
    Diabetic nephropathy (or diabetic kidney disease) is a progressive kidney disease caused by damage to the capillaries in the kidneys' glomeruli.
  • Goodpasture syndrome
    Goodpasture syndrome (GPS; also known as Goodpasture’s disease, antiglomerular basement antibody disease, or anti-GBM disease) is a rare autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the basement membrane in lungs and kidneys, leading to bleeding from the lungs and kidney failure.
  • Glomerulonephritis
    Glomerulonephritis (GN), also known as glomerular nephritis, is a term used to refer to several kidney diseases (usually affecting both kidneys).
  • Pyelonephritis
    Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney tissue, calyces, and renal pelvis.
  • Renal tubular acidosis
    Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a medical condition that involves an accumulation of acid in the body due to a failure of the kidneys to appropriately acidify the urine.
  • Pyonephrosis
    Pyonephrosis (Greek pyon "pus" + nephros "kidney") is an infection of the kidneys' collecting system.
  • Nephroptosis
    Nephroptosis (also called floating kidney or renal ptosis) is an abnormal condition in which the kidney drops down into the pelvis when the patient stands up.
  • Nephrotic syndrome
    Nephrotic syndrome is a syndrome comprising signs of nephrosis, chiefly proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema.
  • Polycystic kidney disease
    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a genetic disorder in which abnormal cysts develop and grow in the kidneys.
  • Uremia
    Uremia can be translated as "urea in the blood".
  • IgA nephropathy
    IgA nephropathy (IgAN), also known as IgA nephritis, Berger disease (/bɛərˈʒeɪ/) (and variations), or synpharyngitic glomerulonephritis, is a disease of the kidney (or nephropathy), specifically it is a form of glomerulonephritis or an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney.
  • Nephritic syndrome
    Nephritic syndrome (or acute nephritic syndrome) is a syndrome comprising signs of nephritis, which is kidney disease involving inflammation.
  • Cystinuria
    Cystinuria is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by high concentrations of the amino acid cystine in the urine, leading to the formation of cystine stones in the kidneys, ureter, and bladder.
  • Fanconi syndrome
    Fanconi syndrome or Fanconi's syndrome (English /fɑːnˈkoʊni/, /fæn-/) is a syndrome of inadequate reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules of the kidney.
  • Renal cell carcinoma
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport waste molecules from the blood to the urine.
  • Dent's disease
    Dent's disease (or Dent disease) is a rare X-linked recessive inherited condition that affects the proximal renal tubules of the kidney.
  • Tubulopathy
    Tubulopathy is a disease affecting the renal tubules of the nephron.
  • Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease
    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is the recessive form of polycystic kidney disease.
  • Bright's disease
    Bright's disease is a historical classification of kidney diseases that would be described in modern medicine as acute or chronic nephritis.
  • Horseshoe kidney
    Horseshoe kidney, also known as ren arcuatus (in Latin), renal fusion or super kidney, is a congenital disorder affecting about 1 in 600 people, more common in men.
  • Renal agenesis
    Renal agenesis is a medical condition in which one (unilateral) or both (bilateral) fetal kidneys fail to develop.
  • Renal cyst
    A renal cyst is a fluid collection in the kidney.
  • Medullary sponge kidney
    Medullary Sponge Kidney (also known as Cacchi–Ricci disease) is a congenital disorder of the kidneys characterized by cystic dilatation of the collecting tubules in one or both kidneys.
  • Contrast-induced nephropathy
    Contrast-induced nephropathy is defined as either a greater than 25% increase of serum creatinine or an absolute increase in serum creatinine of 0.
  • Thin basement membrane disease
    Thin basement membrane disease (TBMD, also known as benign familial hematuria and thin basement membrane nephropathy) is, along with IgA nephropathy, the most common cause of asymptomatic hematuria.
  • High anion gap metabolic acidosis
    High anion gap metabolic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis characterized by a high anion gap (a medical value based on the concentrations of ions in a patient's serum).
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (also called APRT deficiency or 2,8 dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder associated with a mutation in the enzyme adenine phosphoribosyltransferase.
  • Kidney stone disease
    Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.
  • Abderhalden–Kaufmann–Lignac syndrome
    Abderhalden–Kaufmann–Lignac syndrome (AKL syndrome), also called Abderhalden-Lignac-Kaufmann disease or nephropathic cystinosis, is an autosomal recessive renal disorder of childhood comprising cystinosis and renal rickets.
  • Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis
    Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis is a disorder of the glomeruli (glomerulonephritis), or small blood vessels in the kidneys.
  • Analgesic nephropathy
    Analgesic nephropathy is injury to the kidney caused by analgesic medications such as aspirin, phenacetin, and paracetamol.
  • Balkan endemic nephropathy
    Balkan endemic nephropathy — also called Danubian endemic familial nephropathy (DEFN) — is a form of interstitial nephritis.
  • Distal renal tubular acidosis
    Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) or Type 1 renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is the classical form of RTA, being the first described.
  • Gitelman syndrome
    Gitelman syndrome is an autosomal recessive kidney disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with hypocalciuria, and hypomagnesemia.
  • Hypertensive nephropathy
    Hypertensive nephropathy (or "hypertensive nephrosclerosis", or "Hypertensive kidney disease") is a medical condition referring to damage to the kidney due to chronic high blood pressure.
  • Interstitial nephritis
    Interstitial nephritis (or tubulo-interstitial nephritis) is a form of nephritis affecting the interstitium of the kidneys surrounding the tubules.
  • Lupus nephritis
    Lupus nephritis (also known as SLE nephritis) is an inflammation of the kidneys caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease.
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (also known as peripheral diabetes insipidus) is a form of diabetes insipidus primarily due to pathology of the kidney.
  • Proximal renal tubular acidosis
    Proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) or Type 2 Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a type of RTA caused by a failure of the proximal tubular cells to reabsorb filtered bicarbonate from the urine, leading to urinary bicarbonate wasting and subsequent acidemia.
  • Renal osteodystrophy
    Renal osteodystrophy is currently defined as an alteration of bone morphology in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
  • Renal papillary necrosis
    Renal papillary necrosis is a form of nephropathy involving the necrosis of the renal papilla.
  • Multicystic dysplastic kidney
    Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is a condition that results from the malformation of the kidney during fetal development.
  • Cardiorenal syndrome
    Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is an umbrella term used in the medical field that defines disorders of the heart and kidneys whereby “acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other”.
  • HIV-associated nephropathy
    HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) refers to kidney disease developing in association with HIV infection.
  • Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, autosomal dominant PKD or adult-onset PKD) is the most prevalent, potentially lethal, monogenic human disorder.
  • Nutcracker syndrome
    The nutcracker syndrome (NCS) — is a manifest variant of nutcracker phenomenon, renal vein entrapment syndrome, or mesoaortic compression of the left renal vein.
  • Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is a syndrome of the kidney that is characterized by a rapid loss of renal function, (usually a 50% decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) within 3 months) with glomerular crescent formation seen in at least 50% or 75% of glomeruli seen on kidney biopsies.
  • Renal artery stenosis
    Renal artery stenosis is the narrowing of one of the renal arteries, most often caused by atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia.
  • Renal vein thrombosis
    Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is the formation of a clot in the vein that drains blood from the kidneys, ultimately leading to a reduction in the drainage of one or both kidneys and the possible migration of the clot to other parts of the body.
  • Congenital nephrotic syndrome
    Congenital nephrotic syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by protein in the urine and swelling of the body.
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a cause of nephrotic syndrome in children and adolescents, as well as a leading cause of kidney failure in adults.
  • Membranous glomerulonephritis
    Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a slowly progressive disease of the kidney affecting mostly people between ages of 30 and 50 years, usually Caucasian.
  • Nephrosis
    Nephrosis is any of various forms of kidney disease (nephropathy).
  • Secondary hypertension
    Secondary hypertension (or, less commonly, inessential hypertension) is a type of hypertension which by definition is caused by an identifiable underlying secondary cause.
  • Papillorenal syndrome
    Papillorenal syndrome, also called renal-coloboma syndrome or isolated renal hypoplasia, is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder marked by underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the kidney and colobomas of the optic nerve.
  • Transplant glomerulopathy
    Transplant glomerulopathy, abbreviated TG, is a disease of the glomeruli in transplanted kidneys.
  • Alport syndrome
    Alport syndrome is a genetic disorder affecting around 1 in 50,000 children, characterized by glomerulonephritis, end-stage kidney disease, and hearing loss.
  • Milk-alkali syndrome
    In medicine, milk-alkali syndrome is characterized by high blood calcium caused by taking in too much calcium and absorbable alkali; common sources of calcium and alkali are dietary supplements taken to prevent osteoporosis and antacids.
  • Nephromegaly
    Nephromegaly is the process whereby a kidney or both kidneys become enlarged.
  • Lightwood–Albright syndrome
    Lightwood–Albright syndrome is a form of renal tubular acidosis.
  • Nephrocalcinosis
    Nephrocalcinosis, once known as Albright's calcinosis after Fuller Albright, or Anderson-Carr kidneys, is a term originally used to describe deposition of calcium salts in the renal parenchyma due to hyperparathyroidism.
  • Medullary cystic kidney disease
    Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD) is an autosomal dominant kidney disorder characterized by tubulointerstitial sclerosis leading to end-stage renal disease.
  • Conorenal syndrome
    Conorenal syndrome, also called Mainzer-Saldino syndrome or Saldino-Mainzer disease, is a collection of medical conditions that seem to have a common genetic cause.
  • Serpentine fibula-polycystic kidney syndrome
    Exner syndrome, also known as serpentine fibula polycystic kidney syndrome, is a rare disorder, typified by the afflicted person having oddly formed, s-shaped fibulas as well as the development of numerous cysts in the kidneys.
  • EAST syndrome
    EAST syndrome is a syndrome consisting of epilepsy, ataxia (a movement disorder), sensorineural deafness (deafness because of problems with the hearing nerve) and salt-wasting renal tubulopathy (salt loss caused by kidney problems).
  • Fraley syndrome
    Fraley syndrome is a condition where the superior infundibulum of the upper calyx of the kidney is obstructed by the crossing renal (upper or middle section) artery branch, causing distension and dilatation of the calyx and presenting clinically as haematuria and nephralgia (ipsilateral flank pain).
  • Galloway Mowat syndrome
    Galloway Mowat syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder, consisting of a variety of features including hiatal hernia, microcephaly and nephrotic syndrome.
  • Cystic kidney disease
    Cystic kidney disease refers to a wide range of hereditary, developmental, and acquired conditions.
  • Bardoxolone methyl
    Bardoxolone methyl (also known as “RTA 402”, “CDDO-methyl ester”, and CDDO-Me) is an experimental and orally-available semi-synthetic triterpenoid, based on the scaffold of the natural product oleanolic acid.
  • Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis
    Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) is a rare medical condition in which there is uveitis (inflammation of the uvea in the eye) together with tubulointerstitial nephritis (inflammation of the tubules inside the kidney).
  • Glomerulocystic kidney disease
    Glomerulocystic kidney disease (GCKD) is a cystic disorder of the kidneys.