Integral membrane proteins

2017-07-29T23:44:59+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Plastid terminal oxidase, G protein–coupled receptor, Aquaporin, Bcl-2, Chloride channel, Cyclooxygenase, Pannexin, Monoamine oxidase, T-cell receptor, NADH:ubiquinone reductase (H+-translocating), Methane monooxygenase, Photosynthetic reaction centre, Gramicidin, Inward-rectifier potassium ion channel, ATP synthase, ATPase, Cytochrome c oxidase, Glucose transporter, Cytochrome b6f complex, Epithelial sodium channel, Sulfate permease, Disulfide oxidoreductase D, P-Aminobenzoyl-glutamate transporter, NhaA family, Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor calcium channels, Polycystin cation channel family, Transient receptor potential calcium channel family, Calcium-dependent chloride channel, Potassium transporter family, Talin protein, Alternative oxidase, Glycophorin, Caveolin, P2X purinoreceptor, Neurotransmitter sodium symporter, Tetraspanin, Large-conductance mechanosensitive channel, Innexin, L-type calcium channel, Diacylglycerol kinase, P-type calcium channel, Small-conductance mechanosensitive channel, Sodium-solute symporter, Sodium-proton antiporter, M2 proton channel, Ceramide synthase 4, Ceramide synthase 5, Betaine transporter, Formate-nitrite transporter, Nucleobase cation symporter-1, Nucleobase cation symporter-2, Phospholipid scramblase, Olfactory sulcus, Signal peptide peptidase, Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase, Bcl-2 family, Olfactory tubercle, Q-type calcium channel, P-type ATPase, APC Family, AGCS family, Nicotinamide ribonucleoside uptake transporters, APC superfamily, Voltage-gated ion channel, Sec61, Nitrate reductase, Cation diffusion facilitator, MACPF, STARD3, Calcium release activated channel, IL-2 receptor, Interferon-gamma receptor flashcards Integral membrane proteins
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  • Plastid terminal oxidase
    Plastid terminal oxidase or plastoquinol terminal oxidase (PTOX) is an enzyme that resides on the thylakoid membranes of plant and algae chloroplasts and on the membranes of cyanobacteria.
  • G protein–coupled receptor
    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) which are also known as seven-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors, that sense molecules outside the cell and activate inside signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
  • Aquaporin
    Aquaporins are integral membrane proteins from a larger family of major intrinsic proteins (MIP) that form pores in the membrane of biological cells.
  • Bcl-2
    Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), encoded in humans by the BCL2 gene, is the founding member of the Bcl-2 family of regulator proteins that regulate cell death (apoptosis), by either inducing (pro-apoptotic) or inhibiting (anti-apoptotic) apoptosis.
  • Chloride channel
    Chloride channels are a superfamily of poorly understood ion channels specific for chloride.
  • Cyclooxygenase
    Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes, EC 1.14.99.1) that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin.
  • Pannexin
    Pannexins (from Greek 'παν' — all, and from Latin 'nexus' — connection) are a family of vertebrate proteins identified by their homology to the invertebrate innexins.
  • Monoamine oxidase
    L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) (EC 1.4.3.4) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
  • T-cell receptor
    The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
  • NADH:ubiquinone reductase (H+-translocating)
    Complex I (EC 1.6.5.3) (also referred to as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or, especially in the context of the human protein, NADH dehydrogenase is an enzyme of the respiratory chains of myriad organisms from bacteria to humans that falls under the H+ or Na+-translocating NADH Dehydrogenase (NDH) Family (TC# 3.D.1), a member of the Na+ transporting Mrp superfamily. It catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADH to coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and, in eukaryotes, it is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductases type I of bacteria and of eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts couple electron transfer to the electrogenic transport of protons or Na+. It is one of the "entry enzymes" of cellular respiration or oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. The Com
  • Methane monooxygenase
    Methane monooxygenase, or MMO, is an enzyme capable of oxidizing the C-H bond in methane as well as other alkanes.
  • Photosynthetic reaction centre
    A photosynthetic reaction centre is a complex of several proteins, pigments and other co-factors that together execute the primary energy conversion reactions of photosynthesis.
  • Gramicidin
    Gramicidin is a heterogeneous mixture of three antibiotic compounds, gramicidins A, B and C, making up 80%, 6%, and 14%, respectively, all of which are obtained from the soil bacterial species Bacillus brevis and called collectively gramicidin D.
  • Inward-rectifier potassium ion channel
    Inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir, IRK) are a specific subset of potassium (K+) selective ion channels.
  • ATP synthase
    ATP synthase (EC 3.6.3.14) is an important enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
  • ATPase
    ATPases (EC 3.6.1.3, adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
  • Cytochrome c oxidase
    The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, EC 1.
  • Glucose transporter
    Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane.
  • Cytochrome b6f complex
    The cytochrome b6f complex (plastoquinol—plastocyanin reductase; EC 1.10.99.1) is an enzyme found in the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts of plants, cyanobacteria, and green algae, that catalyze the transfer of electrons from plastoquinol to plastocyanin.
  • Epithelial sodium channel
    The epithelial sodium channel (short: ENaC, also: amiloride-sensitive sodium channel) is a membrane-bound ion-channel that is selectively permeable to Na+ ions and that is assembled as a heterotrimer composed of three homologous subunits α, β, and γ or δ, β, and γ.
  • Sulfate permease
    The sulfate permease (SulP) family (TC# 2.A.53) is a member of the large APC superfamily of secondary carriers.
  • Disulfide oxidoreductase D
    The Disufide bond oxidoreductase D (DsbD) family is a member of the Lysine Exporter (LysE) Superfamily.
  • P-Aminobenzoyl-glutamate transporter
    The p-aminobenzoyl-glutamate transporter (AbgT) family (TC# 2.A.68) is a family of transporter proteins belonging to the ion transporter (IT) superfamily.
  • NhaA family
    Na+/H+ antiporter A (NhaA) family (TC# 2.A.33) contains a number of bacterial sodium-proton antiporter (SPAP) proteins.
  • Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor calcium channels
    The ryanodine-inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor Ca2+ channel (RIR-CaC) family (TC# 1.A.3) consists of several receptor proteins exhibiting 4 to 6 transmembrane segments (TMSs), although ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channel (RyR2; TC# 1.A.3.1.1), of Homo sapiens exhibits 10 TMSs.
  • Polycystin cation channel family
    The Polycystin Cation Channel (PCC) Family (TC# 1.A.5) consists of several transporters ranging in size from 500 to over 4000 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and exhibiting between 5 and 18 transmembrane segments (TMSs).
  • Transient receptor potential calcium channel family
    The transient receptor potential Ca2+ channel (TRP-CC) family (TC# 1.A.4) is a member of the voltage-gated ion channel (VIC) superfamily and consists of cation channels conserved from worms to humans.
  • Calcium-dependent chloride channel
    The Calcium-Dependent Chloride Channel (Ca-ClC) Family (TC# 1.A.17) consists of eukaryotic proteins that are required for normal electrolyte and fluid secretion, olfactory perception, and neuronal and smooth muscle excitability in animals.
  • Potassium transporter family
    The K+ Transporter (Trk) Family is a member of the voltage-gated ion channel (VIC) superfamily.
  • Talin protein
    Talin is a high-molecular-weight cytoskeletal protein concentrated at regions of cell–substratum contact and, in lymphocytes, at cell–cell contacts.
  • Alternative oxidase
    The alternative oxidase (AOX) is an enzyme that forms part of the electron transport chain in mitochondria of different organisms Proteins homologous to the mitochondrial oxidase have also been identified in bacterial genomes.
  • Glycophorin
    A glycophorin is a sialoglycoprotein of the membrane of a red blood cell.
  • Caveolin
    In molecular biology Caveolins are a family of integral membrane proteins that are the principal components of caveolae membranes and involved in receptor-independent endocytosis.
  • P2X purinoreceptor
    The ATP-gated P2X Receptor Cation Channel (P2X Receptor) Family (TC# 1.A.7) consists of cation-permeable ligand gated ion channels that open in response to the binding of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP).
  • Neurotransmitter sodium symporter
    Members of the Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporter (NSS) family (TC# 2.A.22) catalyze uptake of a variety of neurotransmitters, amino acids, osmolytes and related nitrogenous substances by a solute:Na+ symport mechanism.
  • Tetraspanin
    Tetraspanins are a family of membrane proteins found in all multicellular eukaryotes.
  • Large-conductance mechanosensitive channel
    The Large Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel (MscL) Family (TC# 1.A.22) consists of pore-forming membrane proteins that are responsible for translating physical forces applied to cell membranes into electrophysiological activities.
  • Innexin
    Innexins (TC# 1.A.25), or gap junction proteins, are structurally related transmembrane proteins that assemble to form invertebrate gap junctions.
  • L-type calcium channel
    The L-type calcium channel (also known as the dihydropyridine channel, or DHP channel) is part of the high-voltage activated family of voltage-dependent calcium channel.
  • Diacylglycerol kinase
    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK or DAGK) is a family of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid (PA) utilizing ATP as a source of the phosphate.
  • P-type calcium channel
    The P-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel.
  • Small-conductance mechanosensitive channel
    Members of the Small Conductance Mechanosensitive Ion Channel (MscS) Family (TC# 1.A.23) provide protection against hypo-osmotic shock in bacteria, responding both to stretching of the cell membrane and to membrane depolarization.
  • Sodium-solute symporter
    Members of the Solute:Sodium Symporter (SSS) Family (TC# 2.A.21) catalyze solute:Na+ symport.
  • Sodium-proton antiporter
    Sodium/proton antiporters are essential secondary-active transporters for sodium and pH homeostasis.
  • M2 proton channel
    The Matrix-2 (M2) protein is a proton-selective ion channel protein, integral in the viral envelope of the influenza A virus.
  • Ceramide synthase 4
    Ceramide synthase 4 (CerS4) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CERS4 gene and is one of the least studied of the ceramide synthases.
  • Ceramide synthase 5
    Ceramide synthase 5 (CerS5) is the enzyme encoded in humans by the CERS5 gene.
  • Betaine transporter
    Proteins of the Betaine/Carnitine/Choline Transporter (BCCT) family (TC# 2.A.15) are found in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and archaea.
  • Formate-nitrite transporter
    The Formate-Nitrite Transporter (FNT) Family (TC# 1.A.16) is a family of homologous transmembrane proteins belonging to the Major Intrinsic Protein (MIP) Superfamily.
  • Nucleobase cation symporter-1
    The Nucleobase:Cation Symporter-1 (NCS1) Family (TC# 2.A.39) consists of over 1000 currently sequenced proteins derived from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, archaea, fungi and plants.
  • Nucleobase cation symporter-2
    The Nucleobase:Cation Symporter-2 (NCS2) Family, also called the Nucleobase/Ascorbate Transporter (NAT) Family, consists of over 1000 sequenced proteins derived from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, archaea, fungi, plants and animals.
  • Phospholipid scramblase
    Scramblase is a protein responsible for the translocation of phospholipids between the two monolayers of a lipid bilayer of a cell membrane.
  • Olfactory sulcus
    The medial orbital gyrus presents a well-marked antero-posterior sulcus, the olfactory sulcus, for the olfactory tract.
  • Signal peptide peptidase
    In molecular biology, the Signal Peptide Peptidase (SPP) is a type of protein that specifically cleaves parts of other proteins.
  • Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase
    Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase (also called carnitine palmitoyltransferase) is a mitochondrial transferase enzyme (EC 2.3.1.21) involved in the metabolism of palmitoylcarnitine into palmitoyl-CoA.
  • Bcl-2 family
    The Bcl-2 Family (TC# 1.A.21) consists of apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 and its homologues.
  • Olfactory tubercle
    The olfactory tubercle (OT, tuberculum olfactorium) is a multi-sensory processing center in the olfactory cortex that plays a role in reward behaviors.
  • Q-type calcium channel
    The Q-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel.
  • P-type ATPase
    The P-type ATPases, also known as E1-E2 ATPases, are a large group of evolutionarily related ion and lipid pumps that are found in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.
  • APC Family
    The Amino Acid-Polyamine-Organocation (APC) Family (TC# 2.A.3) of transport proteins includes members that function as solute:cation symporters and solute:solute antiporters.
  • AGCS family
    Members of the Alanine or Glycine:Cation Symporter (AGCS) Family (TC# 2.A.25) transport alanine and/or glycine in symport with Na+ and or H+.
  • Nicotinamide ribonucleoside uptake transporters
    The Nicotinamide Ribonucleoside (NR) Uptake Permease (PnuC) Family (TC# 4.B.1) is a family of transmembrane transporters that is part of the TOG superfamily.
  • APC superfamily
    The amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily is the second largest superfamily of secondary carriers currently known.
  • Voltage-gated ion channel
    Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the electrical membrane potential near the channel.
  • Sec61
    Sec61 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein translocator (aka translocon).
  • Nitrate reductase
    Nitrate reductases are molybdoenzymes that reduce nitrate (NO−3) to nitrite (NO−2).
  • Cation diffusion facilitator
    Cation diffusion facilitators (CDFs) are integral membrane proteins that increase tolerance to divalent metal ions such as cadmium, zinc, and cobalt.
  • MACPF
    The Membrane Attack Complex/Perforin (MACPF) superfamily, sometimes referred to as the MACPF/CDC superfamily, is named after a domain that is common to the membrane attack complex (MAC) proteins of the complement system (C6, C7, C8α, C8β and C9) and perforin (PF).
  • STARD3
    StAR-related lipid transfer domain protein 3 (STARD3) also known as metastatic lymph node 64 protein (MLN64) is a late endosomal integral membrane protein involved in cholesterol transport.
  • Calcium release activated channel
    Calcium release-activated channels (CRAC) are specialized plasma membrane Ca2+ ion channels.
  • IL-2 receptor
    The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to a cytokine called IL-2.
  • Interferon-gamma receptor
    The interferon-gamma receptor (IFNGR) is a receptor that binds interferon-γ, the sole member of interferon type II.