2017-07-28T15:03:30+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Type I and type II errors, Nevanlinna Prize, Kolmogorov complexity, Principle of least privilege, Information model, MIMO, Quantum information science, Quantum information, Online complex processing, Fisher information, Claude E. Shannon Award, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Kullback–Leibler divergence, Typical set, Uncertainty coefficient, Karl Küpfmüller, Frank Benford, Name collision, Ascendency, Message, Grammatical Man, Quantum computing, Entropy (information theory), Random number generation, Spatiotemporal pattern, Cycles of Time, Bra–ket notation, Π-calculus flashcards
Information theory

Information theory

  • Type I and type II errors
    In statistical hypothesis testing, a type I error is the incorrect rejection of a true null hypothesis (a "false positive"), while a type II error is incorrectly retaining a false null hypothesis (a "false negative").
  • Nevanlinna Prize
    The Rolf Nevanlinna Prize (named in honor of Rolf Nevanlinna) is awarded once every 4 years at the International Congress of Mathematicians, for outstanding contributions in Mathematical Aspects of Information Sciences including: The medal features a profile of Nevanlinna, the text "Rolf Nevanlinna Prize", and very small characters "RH 83" on its obverse.
  • Kolmogorov complexity
    In algorithmic information theory (a subfield of computer science and mathematics), the Kolmogorov complexity of an object, such as a piece of text, is the length of the shortest computer program (in a predetermined programming language) that produces the object as output.
  • Principle of least privilege
    In information security, computer science, and other fields, the principle of least privilege (also known as the principle of minimal privilege or the principle of least authority) requires that in a particular abstraction layer of a computing environment, every module (such as a process, a user, or a program, depending on the subject) must be able to access only the information and resources that are necessary for its legitimate purpose.
  • Information model
    An information model in software engineering is a representation of concepts and the relationships, constraints, rules, and operations to specify data semantics for a chosen domain of discourse.
  • MIMO
    In radio, multiple-input and multiple-output, or MIMO (pronounced /ˈmaɪmoʊ/ or /ˈmiːmoʊ/), is a method for multiplying the capacity of a radio link using multiple transmit and receive antennas to exploit multipath propagation.
  • Quantum information science
    Quantum information science is an area of study based on the idea that information science depends on quantum effects in physics.
  • Quantum information
    In physics and computer science, quantum information is information that is held in the state of a quantum system.
  • Online complex processing
    Online complex processing (OLCP) is a class of realtime data processing involving complex queries, lengthy queries and/or simultaneous reads and writes to the same records.
  • Fisher information
    In mathematical statistics, the Fisher information (sometimes simply called information) is a way of measuring the amount of information that an observable random variable X carries about an unknown parameter θ of a distribution that models X.
  • Claude E. Shannon Award
    The Claude E. Shannon Award of the IEEE Information Theory Society was instituted to honor consistent and profound contributions to the field of Information Theory.
  • IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
    IEEE Transactions on Information Theory is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the IEEE Information Theory Society.
  • Kullback–Leibler divergence
    In probability theory and information theory, the Kullback–Leibler divergence, also called discrimination information (the name preferred by Kullback), information divergence, information gain, relative entropy, KLIC, KL divergence, is a measure of the difference between two probability distributions P and Q.
  • Typical set
    In information theory, the typical set is a set of sequences whose probability is close to two raised to the negative power of the entropy of their source distribution.
  • Uncertainty coefficient
    In statistics, the uncertainty coefficient, also called proficiency, entropy coefficient or Theil's U, is a measure of nominal association.
  • Karl Küpfmüller
    Karl Küpfmüller (6 October 1897 – 26 December 1977) was a German electrical engineer, who was prolific in the areas of communications technology, measurement and control engineering, acoustics, communication theory and theoretical electro-technology.
  • Frank Benford
    Frank Albert Benford, Jr.
  • Name collision
    The term "name collision" refers to the nomenclature problem that occurs in computer programs when the same variable name is used for different things in two separate areas that are joined, merged, or otherwise go from occupying separate namespaces to sharing one.
  • Ascendency
    Ascendency is a quantitative attribute of an ecosystem, defined as a function of the ecosystem's trophic network.
  • Message
    A message is a discrete unit of communication intended by the source for consumption by some recipient or group of recipients.
  • Grammatical Man
    Grammatical Man: Information, Entropy, Language, and Life is a 1982 book written by the Evening Standard's Washington correspondent, Jeremy Campbell.
  • Quantum computing
    Quantum computing studies theoretical computation systems (quantum computers) that make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data.
  • Entropy (information theory)
    In information theory, systems are modeled by a transmitter, channel, and receiver.
  • Random number generation
    A random-number generator (RNG) is a computational or physical device designed to generate a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by a random chance.
  • Spatiotemporal pattern
    Spatialtemporal patterns are patterns that occur in a wide range of natural phenoma and are characterized by a spatial and a temporal patterning.
  • Cycles of Time
    Cycles of Time: An Extraordinary New View of the Universe is a science book by mathematical physicist Roger Penrose published by The Bodley Head in 2010.
  • Bra–ket notation
    In quantum mechanics, bra–ket notation is a standard notation for describing quantum states.
  • Π-calculus
    In theoretical computer science, the π-calculus (or pi-calculus) is a process calculus.