Immunology

2017-07-28T17:21:07+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Adaptation, Immunodeficiency, Lymph node, Cytotoxic T cell, Immunity (medical), Pentavalent vaccine, Allergen, Germinal center, ZMapp, Allotransplantation, Agranulocyte, Pseudoallergy, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, Eosinophil, Familial Mediterranean fever, Drug resistance, Immunotherapy, Lysozyme, CD4, Postorgasmic illness syndrome, CD3 (immunology), Nude mouse, Mononuclear phagocyte system, Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, Antigenic drift, Opportunistic infection, Immune tolerance, Neutrophil, Serum sickness, White blood cell, Leukotriene, Dendritic cell, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, Tilomisole, Voltage-gated proton channel, Neopterin, Tetraspanin, Passive immunity, Body odor, Autoimmunity, 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, Blinatumomab, Trastuzumab, Muromonab-CD3, Protein L, Ertumaxomab, Hepoxilin, Heterophile antigen, Tuberculin, Rho(D) immune globulin, Cantuzumab ravtansine, Contact immunity, Interferome flashcards Immunology
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  • Adaptation
    In biology, an adaptation, also called an adaptive trait, is a trait with a current functional role in the life of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection.
  • Immunodeficiency
    Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent.
  • Lymph node
    A lymph node is an oval- or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, present widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach and linked by lymphatic vessels.
  • Cytotoxic T cell
    A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
  • Immunity (medical)
    In biology, immunity is the balanced state of having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
  • Pentavalent vaccine
    A pentavalent vaccine is a combined vaccine with five individual vaccines conjugated into one, intended to actively protect people from 5 potentially deadly diseases.
  • Allergen
    An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.
  • Germinal center
    Germinal centers or germinal centres (GC) are sites within secondary lymph nodes where mature B lymphocytes proliferate, differentiate, and mutate their antibody genes (through somatic hypermutation), and switch the class of their antibodies (for example from IgM to IgG) during a normal immune response to an infection.
  • ZMapp
    ZMapp is an experimental biopharmaceutical drug comprising three chimeric monoclonal antibodies under development as a treatment for Ebola virus disease.
  • Allotransplantation
    Allotransplant (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, to a recipient from a genetically non-identical donor of the same species.
  • Agranulocyte
    Agranulocytes, also known as mononuclear leukocytes, are white blood cells with a one-lobed nucleus.
  • Pseudoallergy
    A pseudoallergy is a condition named for its similar presentation to a true allergy, though due to different causes.
  • X-linked agammaglobulinemia
    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (also called X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia, XLA, Bruton type agammaglobulinemia, Bruton syndrome, or Sex-linked agammaglobulinemia) is a rare X-linked genetic disorder discovered in 1952 that affects the body's ability to fight infection.
  • Eosinophil
    Eosinophils, sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates.
  • Familial Mediterranean fever
    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), also known as Armenian disease, is a hereditary inflammatory disorder.
  • Drug resistance
    Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a drug such as an antimicrobial, anthelmintic or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.
  • Immunotherapy
    Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
  • Lysozyme
    Lysozymes, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase, are glycoside hydrolases.
  • CD4
    In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
  • Postorgasmic illness syndrome
    In men, postorgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) is a rare disease which, immediately following ejaculation, can cause severe muscle pain throughout the body, as well as other symptoms which can be cognitive, psychological, or physiological.
  • CD3 (immunology)
    In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T-cell co-receptor helps to activate the cytotoxic T-Cell.
  • Nude mouse
    A nude mouse is a laboratory mouse from a strain with a genetic mutation that causes a deteriorated or absent thymus, resulting in an inhibited immune system due to a greatly reduced number of T cells.
  • Mononuclear phagocyte system
    In immunology, the mononuclear phagocyte system or mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) (also known as the reticuloendothelial system or macrophage system) is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue.
  • Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a group of autoantibodies, mainly of the IgG type, against antigens in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes (the most common type of white blood cell) and monocytes.
  • Antigenic drift
    Antigenic drift is a mechanism for variation in viruses that involves the accumulation of mutations within the genes that code for antibody-binding sites.
  • Opportunistic infection
    An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a host with a weakened immune system, an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut flora), or breached integumentary barriers.
  • Immune tolerance
    Immune tolerance, or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, describes a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response.
  • Neutrophil
    Neutrophil (also known as neutrophils or occasionally neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 75%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
  • Serum sickness
    Serum sickness in humans is a reaction to proteins in antiserum derived from a non-human animal source, occurring 4–10 days after exposure.
  • White blood cell
    White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
  • Leukotriene
    Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.
  • Dendritic cell
    Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
  • 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid
    5-Oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid; also termed 5-oxo-ETE and 5-oxoETE) is a Nonclassic eicosanoid metabolite of arachidonic acid and the most potent naturally occurring member of the 5-HETE family of cell signaling agents.
  • Tilomisole
    Tilomisole (WY-18,251) is an experimental drug which acts as an immunomodulator and has been studied for the treatment of some forms of cancer.
  • Voltage-gated proton channel
    Voltage-gated proton channels are ion channels that have the unique property of opening with depolarization, but in a strongly pH-sensitive manner.
  • Neopterin
    Neopterin is a catabolic product of guanosine triphosphate (GTP), a purine nucleotide.
  • Tetraspanin
    Tetraspanins are a family of membrane proteins found in all multicellular eukaryotes.
  • Passive immunity
    Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made antibodies.
  • Body odor
    Body odor, or BO, is present in animals (including humans), and its intensity can be influenced by many factors (behavioral patterns, survival strategies).
  • Autoimmunity
    Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
  • 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid
    15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (also termed 15-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, and 15S-HETE) is an endogenous eicosanoid, i.
  • 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid
    12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, containing a Hydroxyl residue at carbon 12 and a 5Z,8Z,10E,14Z Cis–trans isomerism configuration (Z=cis, E=trans) in its four double bonds.
  • 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid
    5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE, 5(S)-HETE, or 5S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.
  • Blinatumomab
    Blinatumomab (trade name Blincyto, previously known as AMG103 and MT103) is a biopharmaceutical drug used as a second-line treatment for Philadelphia chromosome-negative relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Trastuzumab
    Trastuzumab, sold under the brandname Herceptin among others, is a monoclonal antibody that interferes with the HER2/neu receptor.
  • Muromonab-CD3
    Muromonab-CD3 (trade name Orthoclone OKT3, marketed by Janssen-Cilag) is an immunosuppressant drug given to reduce acute rejection in patients with organ transplants.
  • Protein L
    Protein L was first isolated from the surface of bacterial species Peptostreptococcus magnus and was found to bind immunoglobulins through L chain interaction, from which the name was suggested.
  • Ertumaxomab
    Ertumaxomab (trade name Rexomun) is a rat-murine hybrid monoclonal antibody designed to treat some types of cancer.
  • Hepoxilin
    Hepoxilins (Hx) are a set of epoxyalcohol metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), i.
  • Heterophile antigen
    Heterophile antigens:certain antigens of similar nature, if not identical, present in different tissues in different biological species, classes or kingdoms.
  • Tuberculin
    Tuberculin is an extract of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M.
  • Rho(D) immune globulin
    Rho(D) immune globulin or Rh0(D) immune globulin (letter o and digit zero are both widely attested; more at Rh blood group system - Rh nomenclature) is a medicine given by intramuscular injection that is used to prevent the immunological condition known as Rh disease (or hemolytic disease of newborn).
  • Cantuzumab ravtansine
    Cantuzumab ravtansine (huC242-SPDB-DM4) is an antibody-drug conjugate designed for the treatment of cancers.
  • Contact immunity
    Contact immunity is the property of some vaccines, where a vaccinated individual can confer immunity upon unimmunized individuals through contact with bodily fluids or excrement.
  • Interferome
    Interferome comprises the following data sets: * Gene expression data of interferon regulated genes from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, and Pan troglodytes, manually curated from more than 30 public and inhouse microarray and proteomic datasets.