General anesthetics

2017-07-30T00:53:42+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Nitrous oxide, Chloroform, Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid, Sulfur hexafluoride, Phencyclidine, Chloroethane, Isoflurane, Enflurane, Diethyl ether, Propofol, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, Anileridine, Ketofol, Narcobarbital, Ethylene, Alfaxalone, Hydroxydione, Methitural, Metomidate, Fluroxene, Pregnanolone, Renanolone, Vinyl ether, Esketamine, Fospropofol, Alfentanil, Propoxate, Tiletamine, Roflurane, Teflurane, Synthane, Aliflurane, Halopropane, Fentanyl, Trichloroethylene, Propanidid, Sodium thiopental, Methoxyflurane, Secobarbital, Sufentanil, Remifentanil, Etomidate, Desflurane, Sevoflurane, Cyclopentobarbital, Butyrfentanyl, Acetylfentanyl, Norketamine, Ketamine, Tricaine mesylate, Phenoperidine, Arketamine, Minaxolone, Thiotetrabarbital, Methohexital, Halothane, Methoxypropane, Hexobarbital, Alfadolone, Alfaxolone/alfadolone, Buthalital, Chloralose flashcards General anesthetics
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  • Nitrous oxide
    Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, nitro, or NOS  is a chemical compound with the formula N2O.
  • Chloroform
    Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
  • Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid
    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and a psychoactive drug.
  • Sulfur hexafluoride
    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, which is an excellent electrical insulator.
  • Phencyclidine
    Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust and Sernyl among others, is a dissociative drug.
  • Chloroethane
    Chloroethane or monochloroethane, commonly known by its old name ethyl chloride, is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H5Cl, once widely used in producing tetraethyllead, a gasoline additive.
  • Isoflurane
    Isoflurane is a halogenated ether used for inhalational anesthesia.
  • Enflurane
    Enflurane (2-chloro-1,1,2,-trifluoroethyl-difluoromethyl ether) is a halogenated ether.
  • Diethyl ether
    Diethyl ether or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula (C2H5)2O.
  • Propofol
    Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
  • 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane
    1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, R-134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a or HFC-134a, also known as norflurane (INN), is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential and a somewhat lower global warming potential (1300, compared to R-12's GWP of 2400).
  • Anileridine
    Anileridine (trade name: Leritine) is a synthetic analgesic drug and is a member of the piperidine class of analgesic agents developed by Merck & Co.
  • Ketofol
    Ketofol is a mixture of ketamine and propofol.
  • Narcobarbital
    Narcobarbital (Pronarcon) is a barbiturate derivative developed by Riedel de Hean in the 1930s.
  • Ethylene
    Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula C2H4 or H2C=CH2.
  • Alfaxalone
    Alfaxalone (INN, JAN), also known as alphaxalone or alphaxolone (BAN), is a neuroactive steroid and general anaesthetic.
  • Hydroxydione
    Hydroxydione, as hydroxydione sodium succinate (INN, USAN, BAN) (brand names Viadril, Predion, and Presuren), is a neuroactive steroid which was formerly used as a general anesthetic, but was discontinued due to incidence of thrombophlebitis in patients.
  • Methitural
    Methitural (INN; Neraval, Thiogenal), or methitural sodium, also known as methioturiate, is a barbiturate derivative which was marketed in the 1950s in Europe (in Germany and Italy) as an ultra-short-acting intravenous anesthetic.
  • Metomidate
    Metomidate is a non-barbiturate imidazole that was discovered by Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1965 and under the names (Hypnodil, Nokemyl) is sold as a sedative-hypnotic drug used in Europe to treat humans and for veterinary purposes.
  • Fluroxene
    Fluroxene (INN, USAN; brand name Fluoromar), or 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl vinyl ether, is a volatile, inhalational anesthetic, and was the first halogenated hydrocarbon anesthetic to be introduced.
  • Pregnanolone
    Pregnanolone, also known as eltanolone (INN), as well as 3α,5β-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5β-THP) or 3α-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one, is an endogenous neurosteroid that is biosynthesized from progesterone.
  • Renanolone
    Renanolone (INN), or 11-ketopregnanolone, is a semisynthetic neuroactive steroid which was described as a general anesthetic, but was never introduced for clinical use.
  • Vinyl ether
    Vinyl ether, also known as divinyl ether, divinyl oxide, Vinethene (pharmaceutical trade name) and ethenoxyethene (IUPAC), is a clear, nearly colorless, volatile liquid which was briefly used as an inhalation anesthetic.
  • Esketamine
    Esketamine (also (S)-ketamine or S(+)-ketamine) (brand name Ketanest S) is a general anaesthetic and a dissociative.
  • Fospropofol
    Fospropofol (INN), often used as the disodium salt (trade name Lusedra) is an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent.
  • Alfentanil
    Alfentanil (R-39209, trade name Alfenta, Rapifen in Australia) is a potent but short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug, used for anaesthesia in surgery.
  • Propoxate
    Propoxate (INN; R7464) is an anesthetic related to etomidate and metomidate that was never marketed.
  • Tiletamine
    Tiletamine is a dissociative anesthetic and pharmacologically classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist.
  • Roflurane
    Roflurane (INN, USAN, code name DA-893) is a halocarbon drug which was investigated as an inhalational anesthetic but was never marketed.
  • Teflurane
    Teflurane (INN, USAN, code name Abbott 16900) is a halocarbon drug which was investigated as an inhalational anesthetic but was never marketed.
  • Synthane
    Synthane (code name BAX-3224) is a halocarbon agent which was investigated as an inhalational anesthetic but was never marketed.
  • Aliflurane
    Aliflurane (INN, USAN, code name Hoechst Compound 26 or 26-P) is a halocarbon drug which was investigated as an inhalational anesthetic but was never marketed.
  • Halopropane
    Halopropane (synonym FHD-3, trade name Tebron) is a halocarbon drug which was investigated as an inhalational anesthetic but was never marketed.
  • Fentanyl
    Fentanyl (also known as fentanil) is a potent, synthetic opioid pain medication with a rapid onset and short duration of action.
  • Trichloroethylene
    The chemical compound trichloroethylene (C2HCl3) is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent.
  • Propanidid
    Propanidid is an ultra short-acting phenylacetate general anesthetic.
  • Sodium thiopental
    Sodium thiopental, also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories, not to be confused with pentobarbital), thiopental, thiopentone, or Trapanal (also a trademark), is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic that is an analogue of thiobarbital.
  • Methoxyflurane
    Methoxyflurane (INN), formerly marketed as Penthrane by Abbott Laboratories, is a halogenated ether that was in clinical use as a volatile inhalational anesthetic from its introduction by Joseph F.
  • Secobarbital
    Secobarbital sodium (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company, and subsequently by other companies as described below, under the brand name Seconal) is a barbiturate derivative drug that was patented in 1934 in the US.
  • Sufentanil
    Sufentanil (R30730, brand name Sufenta) is a synthetic opioid analgesic drug approximately five to 10 times more potent than its parent drug, fentanyl, and 500 times as potent as morphine.
  • Remifentanil
    Remifentanil (marketed by GlaxoSmithKline and Abbott as Ultiva) is a potent, short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug.
  • Etomidate
    Etomidate (USAN, INN, BAN) (marketed as Amidate) is a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agent used for the induction of general anaesthesia and sedation for short procedures such as reduction of dislocated joints, tracheal intubation, and cardioversion.
  • Desflurane
    Desflurane (1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) is a highly fluorinated methyl ethyl ether used for maintenance of general anesthesia.
  • Sevoflurane
    Sevoflurane (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)propane; synonym, fluoromethyl hexafluoroisopropyl ether), is a sweet-smelling, nonflammable, highly fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used as an inhalational anaesthetic for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.
  • Cyclopentobarbital
    Cyclopentobarbital sodium (Cyclopal, Dormisan) is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1940s.
  • Butyrfentanyl
    Butyr-fentanyl or butyrylfentanyl (not to be confused with 3-methylfentanyl) is a potent short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug.
  • Acetylfentanyl
    Acetylfentanyl (acetyl fentanyl) is an opioid analgesic drug that is an analog of fentanyl.
  • Norketamine
    Norketamine, or N-desmethylketamine, is the major active metabolite of ketamine, which is formed mainly by CYP3A4.
  • Ketamine
    Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
  • Tricaine mesylate
    Tricaine mesylate (Tricaine methanesulfonate, TMS, MS-222), is white powder used for anesthesia, sedation, or euthanasia of fish.
  • Phenoperidine
    Phenoperidine (Operidine or Lealgin), is an opioid used as a general anesthetic.
  • Arketamine
    Arketamine, also (R)-ketamine or (R)-(−)-ketamine, is the (R)-(−) enantiomer of ketamine.
  • Minaxolone
    Minaxolone (CCI-12923) is a neuroactive steroid which was developed as a general anesthetic but was withdrawn before registration due to toxicity seen with long-term administration in rats, and hence was never marketed.
  • Thiotetrabarbital
    Thiotetrabarbital (INN; Thionarcex) is a drug which is a short-acting barbiturate derivative that is used as an anesthetic.
  • Methohexital
    Methohexital or methohexitone (marketed under the brand name Brevital) is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative.
  • Halothane
    Halothane (trademarked as Fluothane) is a general anesthetic that is inhaled.
  • Methoxypropane
    Methoxypropane, or methyl propyl ether, is an ether once used as a general anaesthetic.
  • Hexobarbital
    Hexobarbital or hexobarbitone, sold both in acid and sodium salt forms as Citopan, Evipan, and Tobinal, is a barbiturate derivative having hypnotic and sedative effects.
  • Alfadolone
    Alfadolone (INN), or alphadolone is a neuroactive steroid and general anesthetic.
  • Alfaxolone/alfadolone
    Alfaxolone/alfadolone (Althesin) is a short acting intravenous anaesthetic agent.
  • Buthalital
    Buthalital sodium (INN; Bayinal, Baytinal, Thialbutal, Transithal, Ulbreval), or buthalitone sodium (BAN), is a barbiturate derivative which was under development as a short-acting anesthetic.
  • Chloralose
    Chloralose is an avicide, and a rodenticide used to kill mice in temperatures below 15 °C.