General anesthetics

2017-07-29T18:01:27+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid, Sodium thiopental, Hexobarbital, Propanidid, Chloroform, Diethyl ether, Ethylene, Ketamine, Nitrous oxide, Chloroethane, Sulfur hexafluoride, Fentanyl, Propofol, Trichloroethylene, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, Halothane, Enflurane, Isoflurane, Methoxyflurane, Phencyclidine, Anileridine, Etomidate, Narcobarbital, Minaxolone, Methoxypropane, Alfaxalone, Hydroxydione, Methohexital, Fospropofol, Sufentanil, Vinyl ether, Cyclopentobarbital, Secobarbital, Chloralose, Fluroxene, Propoxate, Alfentanil, Ketofol, Thiotetrabarbital, Desflurane, Acetylfentanyl, Metomidate, Alfaxolone/alfadolone, Remifentanil, Sevoflurane, Tiletamine, Butyrfentanyl, Pregnanolone, Tricaine mesylate, Arketamine, Esketamine, Norketamine, Alfadolone, Renanolone, Phenoperidine, Buthalital, Methitural, Aliflurane, Halopropane, Roflurane, Synthane, Teflurane flashcards General anesthetics
Click to flip
  • Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid
    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and a psychoactive drug.
  • Sodium thiopental
    Sodium thiopental, also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories, not to be confused with pentobarbital), thiopental, thiopentone, or Trapanal (also a trademark), is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic that is an analogue of thiobarbital.
  • Hexobarbital
    Hexobarbital or hexobarbitone, sold both in acid and sodium salt forms as Citopan, Evipan, and Tobinal, is a barbiturate derivative having hypnotic and sedative effects.
  • Propanidid
    Propanidid is an ultra short-acting phenylacetate general anesthetic.
  • Chloroform
    Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
  • Diethyl ether
    Diethyl ether or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula (C2H5)2O.
  • Ethylene
    Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula C2H4 or H2C=CH2.
  • Ketamine
    Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
  • Nitrous oxide
    Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, nitro, or NOS  is a chemical compound with the formula N2O.
  • Chloroethane
    Chloroethane or monochloroethane, commonly known by its old name ethyl chloride, is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H5Cl, once widely used in producing tetraethyllead, a gasoline additive.
  • Sulfur hexafluoride
    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, which is an excellent electrical insulator.
  • Fentanyl
    Fentanyl (also known as fentanil) is a potent, synthetic opioid pain medication with a rapid onset and short duration of action.
  • Propofol
    Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
  • Trichloroethylene
    The chemical compound trichloroethylene (C2HCl3) is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent.
  • 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane
    1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, R-134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a or HFC-134a, also known as norflurane (INN), is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential and a somewhat lower global warming potential (1300, compared to R-12's GWP of 2400).
  • Halothane
    Halothane (trademarked as Fluothane) is a general anesthetic that is inhaled.
  • Enflurane
    Enflurane (2-chloro-1,1,2,-trifluoroethyl-difluoromethyl ether) is a halogenated ether.
  • Isoflurane
    Isoflurane is a halogenated ether used for inhalational anesthesia.
  • Methoxyflurane
    Methoxyflurane (INN), formerly marketed as Penthrane by Abbott Laboratories, is a halogenated ether that was in clinical use as a volatile inhalational anesthetic from its introduction by Joseph F.
  • Phencyclidine
    Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust and Sernyl among others, is a dissociative drug.
  • Anileridine
    Anileridine (trade name: Leritine) is a synthetic analgesic drug and is a member of the piperidine class of analgesic agents developed by Merck & Co.
  • Etomidate
    Etomidate (USAN, INN, BAN) (marketed as Amidate) is a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agent used for the induction of general anaesthesia and sedation for short procedures such as reduction of dislocated joints, tracheal intubation, and cardioversion.
  • Narcobarbital
    Narcobarbital (Pronarcon) is a barbiturate derivative developed by Riedel de Hean in the 1930s.
  • Minaxolone
    Minaxolone (CCI-12923) is a neuroactive steroid which was developed as a general anesthetic but was withdrawn before registration due to toxicity seen with long-term administration in rats, and hence was never marketed.
  • Methoxypropane
    Methoxypropane, or methyl propyl ether, is an ether once used as a general anaesthetic.
  • Alfaxalone
    Alfaxalone (INN, JAN), also known as alphaxalone or alphaxolone (BAN), is a neuroactive steroid and general anaesthetic.
  • Hydroxydione
    Hydroxydione, as hydroxydione sodium succinate (INN, USAN, BAN) (brand names Viadril, Predion, and Presuren), is a neuroactive steroid which was formerly used as a general anesthetic, but was discontinued due to incidence of thrombophlebitis in patients.
  • Methohexital
    Methohexital or methohexitone (marketed under the brand name Brevital) is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative.
  • Fospropofol
    Fospropofol (INN), often used as the disodium salt (trade name Lusedra) is an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent.
  • Sufentanil
    Sufentanil (R30730, brand name Sufenta) is a synthetic opioid analgesic drug approximately five to 10 times more potent than its parent drug, fentanyl, and 500 times as potent as morphine.
  • Vinyl ether
    Vinyl ether, also known as divinyl ether, divinyl oxide, Vinethene (pharmaceutical trade name) and ethenoxyethene (IUPAC), is a clear, nearly colorless, volatile liquid which was briefly used as an inhalation anesthetic.
  • Cyclopentobarbital
    Cyclopentobarbital sodium (Cyclopal, Dormisan) is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1940s.
  • Secobarbital
    Secobarbital sodium (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company, and subsequently by other companies as described below, under the brand name Seconal) is a barbiturate derivative drug that was patented in 1934 in the US.
  • Chloralose
    Chloralose is an avicide, and a rodenticide used to kill mice in temperatures below 15 °C.
  • Fluroxene
    Fluroxene (INN, USAN; brand name Fluoromar), or 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl vinyl ether, is a volatile, inhalational anesthetic, and was the first halogenated hydrocarbon anesthetic to be introduced.
  • Propoxate
    Propoxate (INN; R7464) is an anesthetic related to etomidate and metomidate that was never marketed.
  • Alfentanil
    Alfentanil (R-39209, trade name Alfenta, Rapifen in Australia) is a potent but short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug, used for anaesthesia in surgery.
  • Ketofol
    Ketofol is a mixture of ketamine and propofol.
  • Thiotetrabarbital
    Thiotetrabarbital (INN; Thionarcex) is a drug which is a short-acting barbiturate derivative that is used as an anesthetic.
  • Desflurane
    Desflurane (1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) is a highly fluorinated methyl ethyl ether used for maintenance of general anesthesia.
  • Acetylfentanyl
    Acetylfentanyl (acetyl fentanyl) is an opioid analgesic drug that is an analog of fentanyl.
  • Metomidate
    Metomidate is a non-barbiturate imidazole that was discovered by Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1965 and under the names (Hypnodil, Nokemyl) is sold as a sedative-hypnotic drug used in Europe to treat humans and for veterinary purposes.
  • Alfaxolone/alfadolone
    Alfaxolone/alfadolone (Althesin) is a short acting intravenous anaesthetic agent.
  • Remifentanil
    Remifentanil (marketed by GlaxoSmithKline and Abbott as Ultiva) is a potent, short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug.
  • Sevoflurane
    Sevoflurane (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)propane; synonym, fluoromethyl hexafluoroisopropyl ether), is a sweet-smelling, nonflammable, highly fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used as an inhalational anaesthetic for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.
  • Tiletamine
    Tiletamine is a dissociative anesthetic and pharmacologically classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist.
  • Butyrfentanyl
    Butyr-fentanyl or butyrylfentanyl (not to be confused with 3-methylfentanyl) is a potent short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug.
  • Pregnanolone
    Pregnanolone, also known as eltanolone (INN), as well as 3α,5β-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5β-THP) or 3α-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one, is an endogenous neurosteroid that is biosynthesized from progesterone.
  • Tricaine mesylate
    Tricaine mesylate (Tricaine methanesulfonate, TMS, MS-222), is white powder used for anesthesia, sedation, or euthanasia of fish.
  • Arketamine
    Arketamine, also (R)-ketamine or (R)-(−)-ketamine, is the (R)-(−) enantiomer of ketamine.
  • Esketamine
    Esketamine (also (S)-ketamine or S(+)-ketamine) (brand name Ketanest S) is a general anaesthetic and a dissociative.
  • Norketamine
    Norketamine, or N-desmethylketamine, is the major active metabolite of ketamine, which is formed mainly by CYP3A4.
  • Alfadolone
    Alfadolone (INN), or alphadolone is a neuroactive steroid and general anesthetic.
  • Renanolone
    Renanolone (INN), or 11-ketopregnanolone, is a semisynthetic neuroactive steroid which was described as a general anesthetic, but was never introduced for clinical use.
  • Phenoperidine
    Phenoperidine (Operidine or Lealgin), is an opioid used as a general anesthetic.
  • Buthalital
    Buthalital sodium (INN; Bayinal, Baytinal, Thialbutal, Transithal, Ulbreval), or buthalitone sodium (BAN), is a barbiturate derivative which was under development as a short-acting anesthetic.
  • Methitural
    Methitural (INN; Neraval, Thiogenal), or methitural sodium, also known as methioturiate, is a barbiturate derivative which was marketed in the 1950s in Europe (in Germany and Italy) as an ultra-short-acting intravenous anesthetic.
  • Aliflurane
    Aliflurane (INN, USAN, code name Hoechst Compound 26 or 26-P) is a halocarbon drug which was investigated as an inhalational anesthetic but was never marketed.
  • Halopropane
    Halopropane (synonym FHD-3, trade name Tebron) is a halocarbon drug which was investigated as an inhalational anesthetic but was never marketed.
  • Roflurane
    Roflurane (INN, USAN, code name DA-893) is a halocarbon drug which was investigated as an inhalational anesthetic but was never marketed.
  • Synthane
    Synthane (code name BAX-3224) is a halocarbon agent which was investigated as an inhalational anesthetic but was never marketed.
  • Teflurane
    Teflurane (INN, USAN, code name Abbott 16900) is a halocarbon drug which was investigated as an inhalational anesthetic but was never marketed.