2017-07-31T17:58:03+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Diabetic foot, Proinsulin, Ketoacidosis, Maillard reaction, Lactic acidosis, Complications of diabetes mellitus, MELAS syndrome, Wolfram syndrome, Pramlintide, Diabetes mellitus and deafness, NPH insulin, Diabetic retinopathy, Gluconeogenesis, Metabolic syndrome, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Gestational diabetes, Glibenclamide, Gliclazide, Glycogenolysis, Hyperglycemia, Pioglitazone, Diabetes management, Diabetic coma, Diabetic nephropathy, Diabetic neuropathy, Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, Hypoglycemia, Prediabetes, Insulin resistance, Pancreatic islets, C-peptide, Glossary of diabetes, Glycemic load, Kussmaul breathing, Diabetic angiopathy, Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, Maturity onset diabetes of the young, Wolcott–Rallison syndrome, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Insulin aspart, Necrobiosis lipoidica, Insulin lispro, Fluorescent glucose biosensor, Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus, Diabetic hypoglycemia, Glucagon rescue, Lipoatrophic diabetes, United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, MODY 1, Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism, MODY 2, MODY 3, MODY 5, Blood glucose monitoring, Muscle atrophy, Nopal, Proximal diabetic neuropathy, Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus, Diabetic foot ulcer, Type 3 diabetes, Frey's syndrome, Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, Bardoxolone methyl flashcards


  • Diabetic foot
    A diabetic foot is a foot that exhibits any pathology that results directly from diabetes mellitus or any long-term (or "chronic") complication of diabetes mellitus.
  • Proinsulin
    Proinsulin is the prohormone precursor to insulin made in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, specialized regions of the pancreas.
  • Ketoacidosis
    Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids.
  • Maillard reaction
    The Maillard reaction (/maɪˈjɑːr/ my-YAR; French pronunciation: ​[majaʁ]) is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that gives browned food its desirable flavor.
  • Lactic acidosis
    Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, with as a result an excessively low pH.
  • Complications of diabetes mellitus
    The complications of diabetes mellitus are far less common and less severe in people who have well-controlled blood sugar levels.
  • MELAS syndrome
    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes – abbreviated to MELAS – is one of the family of mitochondrial cytopathies, which also include MERRF, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.
  • Wolfram syndrome
    Wolfram syndrome, also called DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness), is a rare autosomal-recessive genetic disorder that causes childhood-onset diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness as well as various other possible disorders.
  • Pramlintide
    Pramlintide (Symlin) is an injectable amylin analogue drug for diabetes (both type 1 and 2), developed by Amylin Pharmaceuticals (now a wholly owned subsidiary of AstraZeneca).
  • Diabetes mellitus and deafness
    Diabetes mellitus and deafness (DAD) or maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) is a subtype of diabetes which is caused from a point mutation at position 3243 in human mitochondrial DNA, which consists of a circular genome.
  • NPH insulin
    NPH insulin, also known as isophane insulin (INN) and by , is an intermediate-acting insulin given to help control the blood sugar level of people with diabetes.
  • Diabetic retinopathy
    Diabetic retinopathy ([ˌrɛtnˈɑpəθi]), also known as diabetic eye disease, is when damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes.
  • Gluconeogenesis
    Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
  • Metabolic syndrome
    Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by , is a clustering of at least three of the five (unfold into nine combination) following medical conditions: * abdominal (central) obesity (cf. TOFI) * elevated blood pressure * elevated fasting plasma glucose * high serum triglycerides * low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels Metabolic syndrome is associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
  • Diabetes mellitus type 1
    Diabetes mellitus type 1 (also known as type 1 diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.
  • Diabetes mellitus type 2
    Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
  • Gestational diabetes
    Gestational diabetes also known as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), is when a woman without diabetes, develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.
  • Glibenclamide
    Glibenclamide (AAN, BAN, INN), also known as glyburide (USAN), is an antidiabetic drug in a class of medications known as sulfonylureas, closely related to sulfonamide antibiotics.
  • Gliclazide
    Gliclazide is an oral hypoglycemic (anti-diabetic drug) and is classified as a sulfonylurea.
  • Glycogenolysis
    Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).
  • Hyperglycemia
    Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
  • Pioglitazone
    Pioglitazone (brand name Actos) is a prescription drug of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class with hypoglycemic (antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic) action to treat diabetes.
  • Diabetes management
    The term diabetes includes several different metabolic disorders that all, if left untreated, result in abnormally high concentration of a sugar called glucose in the blood.
  • Diabetic coma
    Diabetic coma is a reversible form of coma found in people with diabetes mellitus.
  • Diabetic nephropathy
    Diabetic nephropathy (or diabetic kidney disease) is a progressive kidney disease caused by damage to the capillaries in the kidneys' glomeruli.
  • Diabetic neuropathy
    Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus.
  • Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state
    Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a complication of diabetes mellitus (predominantly type 2) in which high blood sugars cause severe dehydration, increases in osmolarity (relative concentration of solute) and a high risk of complications, coma and death.
  • Hypoglycemia
    Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
  • Prediabetes
    Prediabetes is the precursor stage before diabetes mellitus in which not all of the symptoms required to diagnose diabetes are present, but blood sugar is abnormally high.
  • Insulin resistance
    Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
  • Pancreatic islets
    The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (i.e., hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
  • C-peptide
    The connecting peptide, or C-peptide, is a short 31-amino-acid polypeptide that connects insulin's A-chain to its B-chain in the proinsulin molecule.
  • Glossary of diabetes
    The following is a glossary of diabetes which explains terms connected with diabetes.
  • Glycemic load
    The glycemic load (GL) of food is a number that estimates how much the food will raise a person's blood glucose level after eating it.
  • Kussmaul breathing
    Kussmaul breathing is a deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also kidney failure.
  • Diabetic angiopathy
    Diabetic angiopathy is a form of angiopathy associated with diabetes mellitus.
  • Gastric inhibitory polypeptide
    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), also known as the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, is an inhibiting hormone of the secretin family of hormones.
  • Maturity onset diabetes of the young
    Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) refers to any of several hereditary forms of diabetes caused by mutations in an autosomal dominant gene (sex independent, i.e. inherited from any of the parents) disrupting insulin production.
  • Wolcott–Rallison syndrome
    Wolcott–Rallison syndrome, WRS, is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder with infancy-onset diabetes mellitus, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, osteopenia, mental retardation or developmental delay, and hepatic and renal dysfunction as main clinical findings.
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication in people with diabetes mellitus.
  • Insulin aspart
    Insulin aspart is a fast-acting insulin analog marketed by Novo Nordisk as NovoLog/NovoRapid.
  • Necrobiosis lipoidica
    Necrobiosis lipoidica is a necrotising skin condition that usually occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus but can also be associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Insulin lispro
    Insulin lispro (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company as Humalog) is a fast acting insulin analog.
  • Fluorescent glucose biosensor
    Fluorescent glucose biosensors are devices that measure the concentration of glucose in diabetic patients by means of sensitive protein that relays the concentration by means of fluorescence, an alternative to amperometric sension of glucose.
  • Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus
    Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) is a form of diabetes mellitus presenting at birth that is not permanent.
  • Diabetic hypoglycemia
    Diabetic hypoglycemia is a low blood glucose level occurring in a person with diabetes mellitus.
  • Glucagon rescue
    Glucagon rescue is the emergency injection of glucagon in case of severe diabetic hypoglycemia.
  • Lipoatrophic diabetes
    Lipoatrophic diabetes is a type of diabetes mellitus presenting with severe lipodystrophy in addition to the traditional signs of diabetes.
  • United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study
    The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) was the largest clinical research study into diabetes ever conducted at the time.
  • MODY 1
    MODY 1 is a form of maturity onset diabetes of the young.
  • Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism
    Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are inborn error of metabolism that affect the catabolism and anabolism of carbohydrates.
  • MODY 2
    MODY 2 is a form of maturity onset diabetes of the young.
  • MODY 3
    MODY 3 is a form of maturity onset diabetes of the young.
  • MODY 5
    Renal cysts and diabetes syndrome (RCAD), also known as MODY 5, is a form of maturity onset diabetes of the young.
  • Blood glucose monitoring
    Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia).
  • Muscle atrophy
    Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized.
  • Nopal
    Nopal (from the Nahuatl word nohpalli [noʔˈpalːi] for the pads of the plant) is a common name in Mexican Spanish for Opuntia cacti (commonly referred to in English as prickly pear), as well as for its pads.
  • Proximal diabetic neuropathy
    Proximal diabetic neuropathy, also known as lumbosacral radioplexus neurophagy, femoral neurophagy and diabetic amyotrophy, is a nerve disorder that results as a complication of diabetes mellitus.
  • Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus
    A newly identified and potentially treatable form of monogenic diabetes is the neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene, which codes for the Kir6.
  • Diabetic foot ulcer
    Diabetic foot ulcer is a major complication of diabetes mellitus, and probably the major component of the diabetic foot.
  • Type 3 diabetes
    Type 3 diabetes is a proposed term for Alzheimer's disease resulting in an insulin resistance in the brain.
  • Frey's syndrome
    Frey's syndrome (also known as Baillarger’s syndrome, Dupuy’s syndrome, auriculotemporal syndrome, or Frey-Baillarger syndrome) is a rare neurological disorder resulting from damage to or near the parotid glands responsible for making saliva, and from damage to the auriculotemporal nerve often from surgery.
  • Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes
    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is diabetes specifically caused by cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition.
  • Bardoxolone methyl
    Bardoxolone methyl (also known as “RTA 402”, “CDDO-methyl ester”, and CDDO-Me) is an experimental and orally-available semi-synthetic triterpenoid, based on the scaffold of the natural product oleanolic acid.