Coenzymes

2017-07-27T20:36:19+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Cofactor F430, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Flavin mononucleotide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Thiamine pyrophosphate, Acetyl-CoA, Adenosine triphosphate, Ascorbic acid, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Riboflavin, S-Adenosyl methionine, Coenzyme A, Lipoic acid, Tetrahydrobiopterin, Tetrahydromethanopterin, 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate, Coenzyme M, Dihydrofolic acid, Tetrahydrofolic acid, Coenzyme B, 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate, Glutathione, Heme C, Benfotiamine, Coenzyme Q10, Biopterin, 5-Formiminotetrahydrofolate, 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate, 5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolate, Levomefolic acid, Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid, Guanosine diphosphate mannose, Isobutyryl-CoA, Uridine diphosphate galactose, Uridine diphosphate glucose, Uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine flashcards Coenzymes
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  • Cofactor F430
    F430 is the prosthetic group of the enzyme methyl coenzyme M reductase.
  • Flavin adenine dinucleotide
    In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group, involved in several important reactions in metabolism.
  • Flavin mononucleotide
    Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), or riboflavin-5′-phosphate, is a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase and functions as prosthetic group of various oxidoreductases including NADH dehydrogenase as well as cofactor in biological blue-light photo receptors.
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
  • Thiamine pyrophosphate
    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP or ThPP), or thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), or cocarboxylase is a thiamine (vitamin B1) derivative which is produced by the enzyme thiamine diphosphokinase.
  • Acetyl-CoA
    Acetyl coenzyme A or acetyl-CoA is an important molecule in metabolism, used in many biochemical reactions.
  • Adenosine triphosphate
    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate, a small molecule used in cells as a coenzyme.
  • Ascorbic acid
    Ascorbic acid is a naturally occurring organic compound with antioxidant properties.
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
  • Riboflavin
    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is part of the vitamin B group.
  • S-Adenosyl methionine
    S-Adenosyl methionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.
  • Coenzyme A
    Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.
  • Lipoic acid
    Lipoic acid (LA), also known as α-lipoic acid and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and thioctic acid is an organosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid.
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin
    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, THB), also known as sapropterin, is a naturally occurring essential cofactor of the three aromatic amino acid hydroxylase enzymes, used in the degradation of amino acid phenylalanine and in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), melatonin, dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), epinephrine (adrenaline), and is a cofactor for the production of nitric oxide (NO) by the nitric oxide synthases.
  • Tetrahydromethanopterin
    Tetrahydromethanopterin (THMPT, H4MPT) is a coenzyme in methanogenesis.
  • 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate
    5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate (N5,N10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate; 5,10-CH2-THF) is the substrate used by the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) to generate 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, or levomefolic acid).
  • Coenzyme M
    Coenzyme M is a coenzyme required for methyl-transfer reactions in the metabolism of methanogens.
  • Dihydrofolic acid
    Dihydrofolic acid (conjugate base dihydrofolate) (DHF) is a folic acid (vitamin B9) derivative which is converted to tetrahydrofolic acid by dihydrofolate reductase.
  • Tetrahydrofolic acid
    Tetrahydrofolic acid, or tetrahydrofolate, is a folic acid derivative.
  • Coenzyme B
    Coenzyme B is a coenzyme required for redox reactions in methanogens.
  • 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate
    3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) is a derivative of adenosine monophosphate that is phosphorylated at the 3' position and has a sulfate group attached to the 5' phosphate.
  • Glutathione
    Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
  • Heme C
    Heme C (or haem C) is an important kind of heme.
  • Benfotiamine
    Benfotiamine (rINN, or S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) is a synthetic S-acyl derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1).
  • Coenzyme Q10
    Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 /ˌkoʊ ˌkjuː ˈtɛn/, CoQ, or Q10 is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in the bodies of most animals.
  • Biopterin
    Biopterins are pterin derivatives which function as endogenous enzyme cofactors in many species of animals and in some bacteria and fungi.
  • 5-Formiminotetrahydrofolate
    5-Formiminotetrahydrofolate is an intermediate in the catabolism of histidine.
  • 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate
    10-Formyltetrahydrofolate (10-CHO-THF) is a form of tetrahydrofolate that acts as a donor of formyl groups in anabolism.
  • 5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolate
    5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-CH=THF) is a form of tetrahydrofolate that is an intermediate in metabolism.
  • Levomefolic acid
    Levomefolic acid (INN) (also known as L-5-MTHF, L-methylfolate and L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and (6S)-5-MTHF) is the primary biologically active form of folate used at the cellular level for DNA reproduction, the cysteine cycle and the regulation of homocysteine.
  • Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid
    UDP glucuronic acid is a sugar used in the creation of polysaccharides and is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid (except in primates and guinea pigs).
  • Guanosine diphosphate mannose
    Guanosine diphosphate mannose or GDP-mannose is a nucleotide sugar that is a substrate for glycosyltransferase reactions in metabolism.
  • Isobutyryl-CoA
    Isobutyryl-coenzyme A is a starting material for many natural products derived from Poly-Ketide Synthase (PKS) assembly lines, as well as PKS-NRPS hybrid assembly lines.
  • Uridine diphosphate galactose
    Uridine diphosphate galactose (UDP-galactose) is an intermediate in the production of polysaccharides.
  • Uridine diphosphate glucose
    Uridine diphosphate glucose (uracil-diphosphate glucose, UDP-glucose) is a nucleotide sugar.
  • Uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine
    Uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine or UDP-GlcNAc is a nucleotide sugar and a coenzyme in metabolism.