A couple of homologous chromosomes, or homologs, are a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosomes that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or PIGD) refers to genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation (as a form of embryo profiling), and sometimes even of oocytes prior to fertilization.
Meiosis /maɪˈoʊsᵻs/ is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Ploidy is the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell.
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.
Cohesin is a protein complex that regulates the separation of sister chromatids during cell division, either mitosis or meiosis.
Chloroplasts have their own DNA, often abbreviated as cpDNA.
Azoospermia factor (AZF) refers to one of several proteins or their genes, which are coded from the AZF region on the human male Y chromosome.
Besides the centromere, one or more secondary constrictions can also be observed in some chromosomes at metaphase.
Neuroacanthocytosis is a label applied to several neurological conditions in which the blood contains misshapen, spiculated red blood cells called acanthocytes.
Chromatin bridge is a mitotic occurrence that forms when telomeres of sister chromatids fuse together and fail to completely segregate into their respective daughter cells.