Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) or Terry syndrome, previously known as retrolental fibroplasia (RLF), is a disease of the eye affecting prematurely-born babies generally having received intensive neonatal care, in which oxygen therapy is used on them due to the premature development of their lungs.
Hemianopsia, or hemianopia, is a decreased vision or blindness (anopsia) in half the visual field, usually on one side of the vertical midline.
Vitamin A deficiency
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) or hypovitaminosis A is a lack of vitamin A in blood and tissues.
Vitelliform macular dystrophy
Vitelliform macular dystrophy or vitelliform dystrophy is an irregular autosomal dominant eye disorder which can cause progressive vision loss.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye leading to a decrease in vision.
Diabetic retinopathy ([ˌrɛtnˈɑpəθi]), also known as diabetic eye disease, is when damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
Guide dogs, (also known as service animals or assistance animals), are assistance dogs trained to lead blind and visually impaired people around obstacles.
Nyctalopia /ˌnɪktəlˈoʊpiə/ (from Greek νύκτ-, nykt- "night"; ἀλαός, alaos "blind, not seeing", and ὄψ, ops "eye"), also called night-blindness, is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light.
Binasal hemianopsia (or Binasal hemianopia) is the medical description of a type of partial blindness where vision is missing in the inner half of both the right and left visual field.
The Moon System of Embossed Reading (commonly known as the Moon writing, Moon alphabet, Moon script, Moon type, or Moon code) is a writing system for the blind, using embossed symbols mostly derived from the Latin script (but simplified).
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited, degenerative eye disease that causes severe vision impairment due to the progressive degeneration of the rod photoreceptor cells in the retina.
Trachoma, also called granular conjunctivitis, Egyptian ophthalmia, and blinding trachoma, is an infectious disease caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
Bitemporal hemianopsia (aka bitemporal heteronymous hemianopsia or bitemporal hemianopia) is the medical description of a type of partial blindness where vision is missing in the outer half of both the right and left visual field.
Mobility can be difficult for people with homonymous hemianopsia.
Coats’ disease, (also known as exudative retinitis or retinal telangiectasis, sometimes spelled Coates' disease), is a rare congenital, nonhereditary eye disorder, causing full or partial blindness, characterized by abnormal development of blood vessels behind the retina.
Norrie disease is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the eye and almost always leads to blindness.
Photokeratitis or ultraviolet keratitis is a painful eye condition caused by exposure of insufficiently protected eyes to the ultraviolet (UV) rays from either natural (e.g. intense sunlight) or artificial (e.g. the electric arc during welding) sources.
Tactile paving (also called truncated domes, detectable warnings, Tactile Ground Surface Indicators, detectable warning surfaces) is a system of textured ground surface indicator found on footpaths, stairs and train station platforms to assist pedestrians who are blind or visually impaired.
Cortical blindness is the total or partial loss of vision in a normal-appearing eye caused by damage to the brain's occipital cortex.
Braille music is a Braille code that allows music to be notated using Braille cells so that music can be read by visually impaired musicians.
Buphthalmos (plural: buphthalmoses) is enlargement of the eyeball and is most commonly seen in infants and young children.
Optic nerve hypoplasia
Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a medical condition arising from the underdevelopment of the optic nerve(s).
The term congenital cataract refers to a lens opacity present at birth.
Childhood blindness is an important cause contributing to the burden of blindness.