2019-04-08T16:07:13+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true organic compounds, functional groups, fat, saturated fats, unsaturated fats, steriods, phospholipids, carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, competitve inhibtion, noncompetitive inhibition, pH, hydrolysis, dehydration, endergonic reaction, exergonic reaction, redox, cell wall, plasma membrane, ribosome, smooth ER, rough ER, Golgi, mitochondria, lysosome, nucleus, peroxisome, chloroplast, cytoskeleton, vacuole, centrioles, fluid mosaic model, integral proteins, diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis, aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration (fermentation), glycolysis, Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis, ATP synthase, fermentation, alcohol fermentation, lactic acid fermentation, photosynthesis, autotroph, heterotrophs, transpiration, photophosphorylation, photolysis, stomata, pigment, C4 plants, C4 photosynthesis, CAM plants, binary fission, cell cycle, cytokinesis, cell division control mechanisms, growth factors, checkpoints, density-dependent inhibition, cyclins and protein kinases, haploid (n), diploid (2n), homologous chromosomes, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, life cycles, human life cycle, fungi life cycle, plants life cycle, source of variation, character, monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross, law of segregation, law of indendent assortment, law of dominance, intermediate inheritance, incomplete dominance, codominace, polygenetic traits, multiple alleles, epistasis, pleiotropy, sex determination, autosomal chromosome, sex-linked traits, X inactivation, holandric trait, linked genes, crossover, linkage map flashcards
AP Biology Final review

AP Biology Final review

  • organic compounds
    contain carbon; examples include lipids, proteins, and carbs
  • functional groups
    amino (NH2), carbonyl (RCOR), carboxyl (COOH), hydroxyl (OH), phosphate (PO4), sulfhydryl (SH)
  • fat
    glycerol and three fatty acids
  • saturated fats
    bad for you; animals and some plants have it; solidifies at room temp.
  • unsaturated fats
    better for you, plants have it; liquifies at room temp.
  • steriods
    lipids whose structures resemble chicken-wire fence. include cholesterol and sex hormones
  • phospholipids
    glycerol + 2 fatty acids + 1 phosphate group; makes up membrane bilayers of cells; hydrophobic interiors and hydrophillic exteriors
  • carbohydrates
    used by cells for energy and stucture; monosaccharides (glucose), disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose), storage polysaccharides (starch [plants], glycogen [animals]), structural polysaccharides (chitin [fungi], cellulose [arthropods])
  • proteins
    made with the help of ribosomes out of amino acids; serve many functions (transport, enzymes, cell signals, receptor molecules, structural components, and channels)
  • enzymes
    catalytic proteins that react in an induced-fit fashion with substrates to speed up that rate of reactions by lowering the activation energy
  • competitve inhibtion
    inhibitor resembles substrate and binds to active site
  • noncompetitive inhibition
    inhibitor binds elsewhere on the enzyme; alters active site so that the substrate cannot bind
  • pH
    logarithmic scale; <7 acidic, 7 neutral, >7 basic (alkaline); 4 is 10 times more acidic than 5
  • hydrolysis
    breaks down compounds by adding water
  • dehydration
    two components brought together, producing H2O
  • endergonic reaction
    reaction that requires input of energy
  • exergonic reaction
    reaction that gives off energy
  • redox
    electron transfer reactions
  • cell wall
    found in prokaryotes and plant cells eukaryotes; protects and shapes the cell
  • plasma membrane
    found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; regulates what substances enter and leave a cell
  • ribosome
    found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; host for protein synthesis; form in nucleolus
  • smooth ER
    found in eukaryotes; lipid synthesis, detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism; contains no ribosomes on cytoplasmic surface
  • rough ER
    found in eukaryotes; synthesizes proteins to secrete or send to plasma membrane; contains ribosomes on cytoplasmic surface
  • Golgi
    found in eukaryotes; modifies lipids, proteins to secrete or send to plasma membrane; contains ribosomes on cytoplasmic surface
  • mitochondria
    found in eukaryotes; power plant of cell; hosts major energy-producing steps of respiration
  • lysosome
    found in eukaryotes; contains enzymes that digest organic compounds; serves as cell's stomach
  • nucleus
    found in eukaryotes; control center of cell; host for transcription, replication, and DNA
  • peroxisome
    found in eukaryotes; breakdown of fatty acids, detoxification of alcohol
  • chloroplast
    found in plant cells eukaryotes; site of photosynthesis in plants
  • cytoskeleton
    found in eukaryotes; skeleton of cell; consists of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
  • vacuole
    large in plant cells and small in animal cells; storage vaults of cells
  • centrioles
    found in animal cells eukaryote; part of microtubule separation apparatus that assits cell division in animal cells
  • fluid mosaic model
    plasma membrane is selectively permeable phosolipid bilayer with proteins of various lengths and sizes interspersed with cholesterol amoung the phospholipids
  • integral proteins
    proteins implanted within lipid bilayer of plasma membrane
  • diffusion
    passive movement of substances down their concentration gradient (from high to low concentrations)
  • osmosis
    passive movement of water from the side of low solute concentration to the side of high solute concentration
  • facilitated diffusion
    assisted transport of particles across membrane (no energy input)
  • active transport
    movement of substances against concentration gradient (low to high concentrations; requires energy input)
  • endocytosis
    phagocytosis of particles into cell through the use of vesicles
  • exocytosis
    process by which particles are ejected from the cell, similar to movement in a trash chute
  • aerobic respiration
    glycolysis -> krebs cycle -> oxidative phosphorylation -> 36 ATP per glucose molecule
  • anaerobic respiration (fermentation)
    glycolysis -> regenerate NAD+ -> 2 ATP per glucose molecule
  • glycolysis
    conversion of 1 glucose molecule into 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 NADH; occurs in the cytoplasma, and in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration; must have NAD+ to proceed
  • Krebs cycle
    conversion 1 pyruvate molecule into 4 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP, H2O, and CO2; occurs twice for each glucose to yeild double the products above; occurs in the mitochondria
  • oxidative phosphorylation
    production of large amounts of ATP from NADH and FADH2; occurs in the mitochrondria; requires the presence of oxygen to proceed
  • chemiosmosis
    coupling of the movement of electrons down the ETC with the formation of ATP using the driving force provided by the proton gradient; occurs in both cell respiration and photosynthesis to produce ATP
  • ATP synthase
    enzyme responsible for using protons to actually produce ATP from ADP
  • fermentation
    process that regenerates NAD+ so glycolsis can begin again; occurs in absence of oxygen
  • alcohol fermentation
    occurs in fungi, yeast, and bacteria; causes conversion of pyruvate to ethanol
  • lactic acid fermentation
    occurs in humans and animal muscles; causes conversion of pyruvate -> lactate; causes cramping sensation when oxygen runs low in muscles
  • photosynthesis
    process by which plants use the energy from light to generate sugar; occurs in chloroplasts; light reactions (thylakoid), and Calvin cycle (stroma)
  • autotroph
    self-nourishing organism that is also known as a producer (plants)
  • heterotrophs
    organisms that must consume other organisms to obtain energy--consmers
  • transpiration
    loss of water via evaporation through the stomata
  • photophosphorylation
    process by which ATP is made during light reactions
  • photolysis
    process by which water is split into hydrogen ions and oxygen atoms (light reactions)
  • stomata
    structure through which CO2 enters a plant, and water vapor and oxygen leave plant
  • pigment
    molcule that absorbs light of a particular wavelength (chlorophyll, carotenoid, phycobilins)
  • C4 plants
    plants that have adapted their photosynthetic process to more efficiently handle hot and dry conditions
  • C4 photosynthesis
    process that first converts CO2 into a 4-carbon molcule in the mesophyll cells, converts that product to malate and then shuttles it to the bundle sheath cells, where the malate releases CO2 and rubisco picks it up as if all were normal
  • CAM plants
    plants close their stomata during the day, collect CO2 at night, and store the CO2 in the form of acids until it is needed during the day for photosynthesis
  • binary fission
    prokaryotic cell division; double the DNA, double the size, then split apart
  • cell cycle
    growth 1 -> synthesis -> growth 2 -> mitosis
  • cytokinesis
    physical separation of newly formed daughter cells of cell division
  • cell division control mechanisms
    growth factors, checkpoints, density-dependent inhibition, and cyclins and protein kinases
  • growth factors
    factors then when present, promote growth, and when absent, impede growth
  • checkpoints
    a cell stops growing to make sure it has the nutrients and raw materials to proceed
  • density-dependent inhibition
    cell stops growing when certain density is reached
  • cyclins and protein kinases
    cyclin combines with CDK to form a structure known as MPF that pushes cell into mitosis when enough is present
  • haploid (n)
    one copy of each chromosome
  • diploid (2n)
    two copies of each chromosome
  • homologous chromosomes
    chromosomes that are similar in shape, size, and function
  • spermatogenesis
    the process of male gamete formation (four sperm from one cell)
  • oogenesis
    the process of female gamete formation (one ovum from each cell)
  • life cycles
    sequences of events that make up the reproductive cycle of an organism
  • human life cycle
    zygote (2n) -> multicellular orgainsm (2n) -> gametes (n) -> zygote (2n)
  • fungi life cycle
    zygote (2n) -> multicellular orgainsm (n) -> gametes (n) -> zygote (2n)
  • plants life cycle
    zygote (2n) -> sporophyte (2n) -> spores (n) -> gametophyte (n) -> gametes (n) -> zygote (2n)
  • source of variation
    crossover, 2^n possible gametes that can be formed, random pairing of gametes
  • character
    heritable feature, such as flower color
  • monohybrid cross
    cross involving one character (3:1 phenotype ratio)
  • dihybrid cross
    cross involving two different characters (9:3:3:1 phenotype ratio)
  • law of segregation
    the two alleles for a trait separate during the formation of gametes--one to each gamete
  • law of indendent assortment
    inheritance of one trait does not interfere with the inheritance of another trait
  • law of dominance
    if two opposite pure-breeding varieties are crossed, all offspring resemble dominant parent
  • intermediate inheritance
    heterozygous individual shows characterstics unlike either parent
  • incomplete dominance
    Yy produces a intermediate phenotype between YY and yy
  • codominace
    both alleles express themselves fully in a Yy individual
  • polygenetic traits
    traits that are affected by more then one gene (eye color or skin color)
  • multiple alleles
    traits that correspond to more than two alleles
  • epistasis
    a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at another locus
  • pleiotropy
    a single gene has multiple effects on an organism
  • sex determination
    males are XY, females are XX
  • autosomal chromosome
    chromosome not involved in gender
  • sex-linked traits
    passed along the X chromosome; more common in males then females
  • X inactivation
    one of two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated and remains coiled as a Barr body
  • holandric trait
    trait that is inherited via the Y chromosome
  • linked genes
    genes that lie along the same chromsome and do not follow the law of independent assortment
  • crossover
    a form of genetic recombination that occurs during prophase I of meiosis
  • linkage map
    genetic map put together using crossover frequencies