Baryogenesis

In physical cosmology, baryogenesis is the generic term for the hypothetical physical processes that produced an asymmetry (imbalance) between baryons and antibaryons produced in the very early universe.

Isospin

In nuclear physics and particle physics, isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a quantum number related to the strong interaction.

Parity (physics)

In quantum mechanics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the flip in the sign of one spatial coordinate.

Skyrmion

In particle theory, the skyrmion (/ˈskɜːrmi.ɒn/) is a hypothetical particle related originally to baryons.

Helicity (particle physics)

In particle physics, helicity is the projection of the angular momentum onto the direction of momentum.

Antiparticle

Corresponding to most kinds of particles, there is an associated antimatter antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charge (including electric charge).

Baryon number

In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.

Cherenkov radiation

Cherenkov radiation, also known as Vavilov–Cherenkov radiation, is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.

Dirac equation

In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.

Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion (a name coined by Paul Dirac from the surname of Enrico Fermi) is any particle characterized by Fermi–Dirac statistics.

Fundamental interaction

Fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions in physical systems that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions or forces, are merged into one single force.

Higgs mechanism

In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.

List of particles

This is a list of the different types of particles found or believed to exist in the whole of the universe.

Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as classifying all the subatomic particles known.

Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force, nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, the others are electromagnetism, the weak interaction and gravitation.

Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is one of the four known fundamental interactions of nature, alongside the strong interaction, electromagnetism, and gravitation.

Chirality (physics)

A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).

Unified field theory

In physics, a unified field theory (UFT), occasionally referred to as a uniform field theory, is a type of field theory that allows all that is usually thought of as fundamental forces and elementary particles to be written in terms of a single field.

Particle

A particle is a minute fragment or quantity of matter.

Fermi's interaction

In particle physics, Fermi's interaction (also the Fermi theory of beta decay) is an explanation of the beta decay, proposed by Enrico Fermi in 1933.

Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, also designated AMS-02, is a particle physics experiment module that is mounted on the International Space Station (ISS).

Quantum tunnelling

Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) refers to the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically could not surmount.

Super-Kamiokande

Super-Kamiokande (full name: Super-Kamioka Neutrino Detection Experiment, abbreviated to Super-K or SK) is a neutrino observatory located under Mount Ikeno near the city of Hida, Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

Cross section (physics)

The cross section is an effective area that quantifies the intrinsic likelihood of a scattering event when an incident beam strikes a target object, made of discrete particles.

Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

Inflaton

The inflaton is a hypothetical scalar fieldthat is supposed to be responsible for cosmic inflationin the very early universe.

Majorana fermion

A Majorana fermion (/maɪəˈrɒnə ˈfɛərmiːɒn/), also referred to as a Majorana particle, is a fermion that is its own antiparticle.

Neutralino

In supersymmetry, the neutralino is a hypothetical particle.

Massless particle

In particle physics, a massless particle is a particle whose invariant mass is theoretically zero.

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC /ˈrɪk/) is one of only two operating heavy-ion colliders, and the only spin-polarized proton collider ever built.

Mirror matter

In physics, mirror matter, also called shadow matter or Alice matter, is a hypothetical counterpart to ordinary matter.

Neutral particle

In physics, a neutral particle is a particle with no electric charge.

Alternatives to the Standard Model Higgs

Although the Higgs boson, as included in the Standard Model, is arguably the simplest method of achieving the Higgs mechanism, it is not without problems.

Subcritical reactor

A subcritical reactor is a nuclear fission reactor concept that produces fission without achieving criticality.

Diquark

The forces between the two quarks in a diquark is attractive when both the colors and spins are antisymmetric.

Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray

In astroparticle physics, an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) is a cosmic ray particle with a kinetic energy greater than 1×1018 eV, far beyond both the rest mass and energies typical of other cosmic ray particles.

Nuclear structure

Understanding the structure of the atomic nucleus is one of the central challenges in nuclear physics.

Relativistic quantum mechanics

In physics, relativistic quantum mechanics (RQM) is any Poincaré covariant formulation of quantum mechanics (QM).

Brane cosmology

Brane cosmology refers to several theories in particle physics and cosmology related to string theory, superstring theory and M-theory.

QED vacuum

The quantum electrodynamic vacuum or QED vacuum is the field-theoretic vacuum of quantum electrodynamics.

Spallation

Spallation is a process in which fragments of material (spall) are ejected from a body due to impact or stress.

Michel parameters

The Michel parameters, usually denoted by and , are four parameters used in describing the phase space distribution of leptonic decays of charged leptons, .

Light dark matter

In astronomy and cosmology, light dark matter refers to dark matter weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) candidates with masses less than 1 GeV.

Scalar field dark matter

In astrophysics and cosmology scalar field dark matter is a classical, minimally coupled, real scalar field postulated to account for the inferred dark matter.

Gluon field strength tensor

In theoretical particle physics, the gluon field strength tensor is a second order tensor field characterizing the gluon interaction between quarks.

Quantum hadrodynamics

Quantum hadrodynamics is an effective field theory pertaining to interactions between hadrons, that is, hadron-hadron interactions or the inter-hadron force.

Strangeness production

Strangeness production is a signature and a diagnostic tool of quark–gluon plasma (or QGP) formation and properties.