Oxandrolone (brand names Oxandrin, Anavar, Lonavar, others), is an anabolic steroid that was first available as a prescription drug in the United States in 1964.
Amineptine was developed by the French Society of Medical research in the 1960s.
An athlete biological passport is an individual, electronic record for professional athletes, in which profiles of biological markers of doping and results of doping tests are collated over a period of time.
Methandriol (INN) (brand names Crestabolic, Cytobolin, Diandren, Madiol, Stenediol, Mestenediol), also known as methylandrostenediol, is an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) that was developed by Organon and is sold in both oral and (as methandriol dipropionate) injectable formulations.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that are structurally related to and have similar effects as testosterone in the body.
Erythropoietin (/ɪˌrɪθroʊˈpɔɪᵻtən/ or /ɪˌrɪθroʊpoʊˈɛtɪn, -rə-, -ˈiː-, -tən/; from Greek: ἐρυθρός, erythros 'red' and ποιεῖν, poiein 'make'), also known as EPO, hematopoietin, or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production.
Furosemide, sold under the brand name Lasix among others, is a medication used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
Meldonium (INN), trade-named as Mildronate among others, is a limited-market pharmaceutical, developed in 1970 by Ivars Kalviņš, Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis (USSR), and manufactured primarily by Grindeks of Latvia and several generic manufacturers.
Bromantane (brand name Ladasten, also known in Russia as adamantylbromphenylamine) is an atypical psychostimulant and anxiolytic drug of the adamantane family that is used in Russia in the treatment of neurasthenia.
Phenylpiracetam (INN: fonturacetam, brand names Phenotropil, Carphedon), also called is a phenylated analog of the drug piracetam which was developed in 1983 in Russia where it is available as a prescription drug.
Metandienone (INN) (trade names Averbol, Dianabol, Danabol, Metanabol, Naposim, Vetanabol), or methandienone (BAN), also known commonly as methandrostenolone, and known also as 17α-methyl-δ1-testosterone or 17α-methyl-1-dehydrotestosterone, is an orally active anabolic steroid originally developed in Germany and released in the United States in the early 1960s by Ciba Specialty Chemicals.
Boldenone (INN, BAN) (brand names Equipoise, Ganabol, Equigan, Ultragan, Boldane), also known as Δ1-testosterone, 1-dehydrotestosterone, or androsta-1,4-diene-3-one-17β-ol, is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and the 1(2)-dehydrogenated analogue of testosterone.
GW501516 (also known as GW-501,516, GW1516, GSK-516 and on the black market as Endurobol) is a PPARδ receptor agonist that was invented in a collaboration between Ligand Pharmaceuticals and GlaxoSmithKline in the 1990s, was entered into clinical development as a drug candidate for metabolic diseases and cardiovascular diseases, and was abandoned in 2007 because animal testing showed that the drug caused cancer to develop rapidly in several organs.
Doping at the Tour de France
There have been allegations of doping in the Tour de France since the race began in 1903.
Doping in Russia
Doping in Russian sports is a significant issue.
Doping in the United States
Doping or the use of restricted performance-enhancing drugs, has occurred many a times in the United States, most notably in baseball and football.