An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or system.
Artificial cardiac pacemaker
A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device which uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contracting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart.
Negative feedback occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
The term "autopoiesis" (from Greek αὐτo- (auto-), meaning "self", and ποίησις (poiesis), meaning "creation, production") refers to a system capable of reproducing and maintaining itself.
In science, computing, and engineering, a black box is a device, system or object which can be viewed in terms of its inputs and outputs (or transfer characteristics), without any knowledge of its internal workings.
A cyborg (short for "cybernetic organism") is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts.
Entropy (information theory)
In information theory, systems are modeled by a transmitter, channel, and receiver.
In computer science and operations research, a genetic algorithm (GA) is a metaheuristic inspired by the process of natural selection that belongs to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA).
The prisoner's dilemma is a standard example of a game analyzed in game theory that shows why two completely "rational" individuals might not cooperate, even if it appears that it is in their best interests to do so.
A system is a set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex/intricate whole.
Systems theory or systems science is the interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of discovering patterns and elucidating principles that can be discerned from and applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research.
A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing in both ears; as of 2014 they had been used experimentally in some people who had acquired deafness in one ear after learning how to speak.
FIFO (computing and electronics)
FIFO is an acronym for first in, first out, a method for organizing and manipulating a data buffer, where the oldest (first) entry, or 'head' of the queue, is processed first.
The Gaia hypothesis, also known as Gaia theory or Gaia principle, proposes that organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.
Open system (systems theory)
An open system is a system that has external interactions.
Subsidiarity is a principle of social organization that originated in the Roman Catholic Church.
A double bind is an emotionally distressing dilemma in communication in which an individual (or group) receives two or more conflicting messages, and one message negates the other.
Autonomic computing refers to the self-managing characteristics of distributed computing resources, adapting to unpredictable changes while hiding intrinsic complexity to operators and users.
Complex systems present problems both in mathematical modelling and philosophical foundations.
The term information revolution describes current economic, social and technological trends beyond the Industrial Revolution.
A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise.
Biorobotics is a term that loosely covers the fields of cybernetics, bionics and even genetic engineering as a collective study.
Cyberpsychology (or Internet psychology or web psychology) is a developing field that encompasses all psychological phenomena that are associated with or affected by emerging technology.
Artificial empathy (AE) is considered to be the next step in the development of artificial intelligence, with companion robots becoming able to detect and respond to human emotions.