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Chapter 2
Keeping Food Safe
© Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF)
and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sections 2.1 – 2.2
2.1
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
2
What Is a
Foodborne Illness?
All restaurant and foodservice operations must keep food safe. Every
person in the operation must work toward this goal.
 A foodborne illness is a disease transmitted to people by food.
 A foodborne-illness outbreak is when two or more people get the
same illness after eating the same food.
2.1
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
3
Forms of Contamination
To prevent foodborne illness, it is important to recognize the hazards
that can make food unsafe.
 A hazard is something with the potential to cause harm.
 In the preparation of food, hazards are divided into three categories:
biological, chemical, and physical.
 Contamination means that harmful things are present in food,
making it unsafe to eat.
 Food can become unsafe through:
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2.1
Poor personal hygiene
Time-temperature abuse
Cross-contamination
Poor cleaning and sanitizing
Purchasing from unapproved suppliers
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
4
Biological Contamination
Microorganisms are small, living organisms that can be seen only
through a microscope.
 The four types of pathogens that can contaminate food
and cause foodborne illness are:
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2.1
Viruses
Bacteria
Parasites
Fungi
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
5
Biological Contamination (cont.)
 Pathogens need six conditions to grow. An easy way to
remember these conditions is by remembering the
phrase FAT TOM, for Food, Acidity, Temperature (FAT),
Time, Oxygen, and Moisture (TOM).
 Food that is most vulnerable for pathogen growth is food
that needs time and temperature control for safety, or
TCS food for short.
2.1
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
6
Chemical Contamination
 Chemicals contaminants come from everyday items that
are found in restaurant and foodservice operations and
may cause foodborne illnesses.
 Store chemicals in a separate area away from food,
utensils, and equipment used for food.
2.1
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
7
Physical Contamination
 Physical contamination happens when objects get into food.
 Contaminants can be naturally occurring, such as the bones
in fish, or result from accidents and mistakes.
 Common physical contaminants include:
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2.1
Metal shavings from cans
Glass from broken lightbulbs
Fingernails, hair, and bandages
Jewelry
Fruit pits
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
8
Allergens
A food allergy is the body’s negative reaction to a food protein.
 Employees should be aware of major allergens and the
menu items that contain them.
 Cross-contact occurs when allergens are transferred from
food containing an allergen to the food served to the
customer.
2.1
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
9
How Foodhandlers Can
Contaminate Food
Good personal hygiene is a key factor in the prevention of foodborne
illnesses. Successful managers make personal hygiene a priority.
 Foodhandlers can contaminate food in a variety of
situations.
2.2
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
10
Personal Cleanliness
and Work Attire
Personal cleanliness is an important part of personal hygiene.
Pathogens can be found on hair and skin that aren’t kept clean.
 All foodhandlers must bathe or shower before work and keep their
hair clean.
 Dirty clothing may carry pathogens that can cause foodborne
illnesses.
 To avoid spreading foodborne illnesses, foodhandlers should:
 Always cover their hair.
 Remove aprons and store them in the right place when leaving prep
areas.
 Wear clean clothing every day.
 Remove jewelry from hands and arms before preparing food or when
working around prep areas.
2.2
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
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Handwashing
Handwashing is the most important part of personal hygiene.
The entire handwashing process should be a minimum of 20 seconds.
 Foodhandlers must also wash their hands after:
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2.2
Using the restroom
Handling raw meat, poultry, or seafood
Touching the hair, face, or body
Sneezing, coughing, or using a tissue
Eating, drinking, smoking, or chewing gum or tobacco
Handling chemicals that might affect food safety
Taking out garbage
Clearing tables or busing dirty dishes
Touching clothing or aprons
Handling money
Touching anything else that may contaminate hands
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
12
Bare-Hand Contact/
Illness Work Requirements
 Using bare hands to handle ready-to-eat food can
increase the risk of contaminating it. Gloves, tongs, and
deli tissue can help keep food safe by creating a barrier
between hands and food.
 Employees should be restricted from working in food
contact positions if they have a sore throat and fever. If
they are in a high-risk establishment, then they should
be excluded.
 Employees should be excluded from an establishment if
they have diarrhea, vomiting, or a foodborne illness.
2.2
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
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Sections 2.3-2.5
2.2
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
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Cross-Contamination
The spread of pathogens from one surface or food to another is called
cross-contamination.
 The steps that an operation takes to buy, store, prepare,
cook, and serve food is known as the flow of food.
2.3
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
15
Time-Temperature Abuse
Most foodborne illnesses happen because TCS food has been timetemperature abused.
 Food is time-temperature abused any time it is cooked to
the wrong internal temperature, held at the wrong
temperature, or cooled or reheated incorrectly.
 Food has been time-temperature abused when it remains
at 41˚F to 135˚F. This is called the temperature danger
zone because pathogens grow in this range.
 If food is held in this range for four or more hours, throw it
out.
2.3
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
16
Thermometers
Three types of thermometers are commonly used in operations—
bimetallic stemmed, thermocouples, and thermistors.
 A bimetallic stemmed thermometer can check temperatures
from 0˚F to 220˚F.
 Thermocouples and thermistors are also common in
restaurant and foodservice operations. They measure
temperatures through a metal probe and display them
digitally.
 Infrared thermometers measure the temperatures of food
and equipment surfaces.
 Thermometer need to be calibrated on a regular basis.
2.3
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
17
Purchasing
All the food used in a restaurant or foodservice operation should come
from approved, reputable suppliers.
 An approved food supplier is one that has been
inspected by appropriate agencies and meets all
applicable local, state, and federal laws.
2.3
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
18
Receiving
To keep food safe during receiving, an operation needs to have enough
trained staff available to receive, inspect, and store the food.
 Use thermometers to check food temperatures during receiving.
 The packaging of food and nonfood items should be intact and
clean. Reject any items with packaging problems or with signs of
pest damage or expired use-by dates.
 Poor food quality is sometimes a sign of time-temperature abuse.
2.3
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
19
Storage
Food can become unsafe if stored improperly. Store all TCS food
at 41°F or lower, or at 135°F or higher.
 All TCS (potentially hazardous food), ready-to-eat food
that is prepared in-house can be stored for a maximum
of 7 days.
 Food that is not stored in it’s original container needs to
be labeled with the contents and use-by date.
2.3
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
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Storage
Food can become unsafe if stored improperly. Store all TCS food
at 41°F or lower, or at 135°F or higher.
 Rotate food in storage to use the oldest inventory first
using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method.
 Always store food to prevent cross-contamination. Store
refrigerated raw meat, poultry, and seafood separately
from ready-to-eat food.
2.3
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
21
Preparation
 Prepare food in small batches so that ingredients don’t
sit out for too long in the temperature danger zone.
 To prevent time-temperature abuse and reduce
pathogen growth, never thaw food at room temperature.
2.3
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
22
Cooking
Cooking food to the correct temperature is critical for keeping it safe.
 Every type of TCS food has a minimum internal
temperature that it must reach.
 Once food reaches its minimum internal temperature,
make sure that it stays at that temperature for a specific
amount of time.
2.3
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
23
Holding, Cooling,
and Reheating
 To hold TCS food safely, hold hot food at 135°F or higher and hold
cold food at 41°F or lower. Throw out any food that’s in the
temperature danger zone.
 Cool TCS food from 135°F to 41°F or lower within six hours. First,
cool food from 135°F to 70°F within two hours. Then cool it to 41°F
or lower in the next four hours.
2.3
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
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Serving
The biggest threat to food that is ready to be served is contamination.
 The service staff needs to be just as careful as the kitchen
staff.
2.3
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25
The HACCP Plan
A food safety management system is a group of procedures and
practices that work together to prevent foodborne illness.
 A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, or HACCP, system
identifies major hazards at specific points within a food’s flow
through the operation.
 An effective HACCP system is based on a written plan that
considers an operation’s menu, customers, equipment, processes,
and operations. It is based on seven basic principles:
1.
2.
3.
4.
2.4
Conduct a hazard analysis.
Determine critical control
points (CCPs).
Establish critical limits.
Establish monitoring
procedures.
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
5.
6.
7.
Identify corrective actions.
Verify that the system
works.
Establish procedures for
record keeping and
documentation.
26
Cleaning & Sanitizing
 Cleaning – Removing food or dirt from a surface
 Sanitizing – Reducing pathogens on a surface to safe levels
 All equipment and utensils in a foodservice establishment needs to
be cleaned and sanitized. This will help prevent crosscontamination and cross contact.
2.4
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
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Four step process
1 – Wash
2 – Rinse
3 – Sanitize
4 – Air dry
Test sanitizer solutions with sanitizer test strips.
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
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