Review for Skeletal and Muscular Test 1. What are the 4 layers of

Review for Skeletal and Muscular Test
1. What are the 4 layers of bone? What do each contain/ what is their function?
1. Periosteum – soft thin covering that protects the bone
2. compact bone- hard outer layer of bone
3. spongy bone-contains veins and nerves
4. marrow-produce red blood cells
2. What are the 5 main functions of the skeletal system?
1. protect vital organs
2. shape and support for body
3. stores minerals (phosphorous and calcium)
4. produces red blood cells
5. works together with muscles for movement
3. How many bones are in the human body?
4. What are the bones that form the backbone called? Vertebrae
5. What are the four different types of moveable joints, examples of location in the body,
and how do they move in the body?
1. hinge- back and forth motion only, found in the elbows and knees
2. ball and socket- 360 degrees of motion, found in shoulders and hips
3. gliding- bones slide or glide over one another, found in the hands and feet
4. pivot- one bone rotates over another, below the elbow & first 2 vertebrae in neck
6. Which joint has the largest range of motion? ball and socket joint
7. How does structure relate to function? Structure is how / what it’s made of, function is its’
job. The structure determines the function.
8. What are the 2 main minerals that are stored in the bones? Phosphorous and calcium
9. At what age is your body mostly made of cartilage? As a baby.
What is cartilage? Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue found in many areas, including
the joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, and more. It is not as hard and
rigid as bone but is stiffer and less flexible than muscle.
11. What are the names of each body system shown below?
Skeletal System
Muscular System
12. What is the function of the muscular system?
To move food through the digestive tract, to move the bones and body, to move
blood through the body
13. What is the difference between involuntary and voluntary?
Involuntary- body controls the action (automatically)
Voluntary-you control the action
14. List and describe the difference between the 3 different types of muscles.
1. skeletal muscles- voluntary- muscles connected to the skeletal system that allow
movement in the body
2. cardiac muscles- involuntary- only in the heart, pacemaker to control heart beat
with electrical pulses
3. smooth muscles- involuntary- in the internal organs, squeezes food and blood
through body
15. How skeletal muscle pairs work together to create movement?
One muscle contracts (shortens), while the other relaxes (lengthens).
16. Where is cardiac muscle found and why is it unique?
In the heart only, cardiac muscle never stops or fatigues (gets tired)
17. What is the function of the heart?
Deliver nutrients throughout body, carry oxygen from lungs to cells, carry carbon dioxide
from cells to lungs?
18. How is blood moved through body?
Cardiac muscle of the heart pumps blood, smooth muscle of the internal organs (blood
vessels) squeeze the blood through body