Metals and nonmetals

Metals and nonmetals
Ch.4, section 3 and 4
Alkali Metals (group 1)
React with other elements by losing one electron.
Very reactive
Found only in compounds
Some are shiny and so soft that you can cut them
with a plastic knife.
• Sodium and potassium are the two most
important alkali metals. (important for life)
• Lithium, sodium, potassium, Rubidium, Cesium,
Alkaline Earth Metals (group 2)
• Fairly hard, gray-white, and a good conductor
of electricity.
• Lose two electrons in reactions
• Not as reactive as group 1, but are still very
• Two most common alkaline metals are
magnesium and calcium.
• Beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium,
barium, radium
Transition metals (groups 3-12)
Good conductors of electricity
Many from colorful compounds
Less reactive than groups 1 and 2
Some are important to your health. (you
would not survive without iron)
• Most noticeable: gold, silver, copper, iron,
Metals in mixed groups (groups 13-15)
• Are not as nearly as reactive as the metals on
the left side of the periodic table.
• Most common are tin and lead.
Lanthanides (below the table)
• Soft, malleable, shiny with high conductivity.
• Mixed with common metals to make alloys.
• Alloy is a mixture of a metal with at least one
other element, usually another metal.
Actinides (below the table)
• Below the lanthanides
• Only actinium, thorium, protactinium, and
uranium occur naturally on Earth.
Families of non-metals
The carbon family:
- Each element can gain, lose, or share 4
electrons when reacting with other elements.
- G-14: only carbon is a nonmetal.
- Carbon is important in the chemistry of life.
- - compounds are made of long chains of
- Carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, lead
Nitrogen family (group 15)
• Contains 2 nonmetals. (nitrogen and
• Usually gain or share 3 electrons in reactions.
• Nitrogen makes up 80 % of the atmosphere.
• Is a form of diatomic molecule. Consists of 2
atoms. (N2)
• Nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony,
Periodic Table
• .
Patterns of