SECTION 1 STUDY GUIDE 1. _______________________ captures the light energy from the sun. 2. The waxy layer of the surface of stems and leaves that serves as protection is called the _________________________. 3. The ___________________ __________________ of plants provides strength, support and protection of plants. 4. The ___________________________ is the stage of a plant’s life cycle in which spores are produced. 5. The ____________________________ stage is when the plant produces gametes (sperm and egg) for sexual reproduction. 6. Scientists believe plants originated from green ________________. 7. ____________________________ plants are limited on how large they grow because they lack tissues that transport needed resources. They must rely on diffusion for obtaining their resources. 8. ______________________________ have tissues that deliver resources to all parts/places in a plant. You could think of these plants as having a plumbing system for transport. 9. Non-flowering plants are ______________________ and flowering plants are ____________________________. 10. There are two groups of vascular plants, those that produce _______________ and those that do not produce ________________. SECTION 2 STUDY GUIDE 1. Mosses and Liverworts are ___________________________ plants and do not produce _____________________. 2. The gametophyte stage produces __________________ and _______________ for the reproduction of mosses. 3. The _____________________ serve as roots for mosses. 4. The three examples of plants that are vascular, yet do not produce seeds are the ____________________, ______________________, and the _____________ ______________________. 5. The “root” system of ferns is actually called a ___________________. 6. The rib with leaves attached on a fern is called the _______________________. 7. The immature fronds are called _______________________ because they resemble a fiddle in shape. 8. _______________________ are thought to be the common link to modern plants. They resemble straws in the fact that their stems are hollow and the tip has a cone-like structure. The conelike structure contains ___________________. 9. ______________________ __________________ resemble mosses, but they have a cone-like tip that releases spores for reproduction. 10. We get one major fossil fuel from the seedless vascular plants that died millions of years ago. What fuel are we talking about? _______________________ SECTION 3 STUDY GUIDE 1. Seed plants also have a two part life cycle of a _____________________ and ________________________ stage. 2. The seed protects the young ________________________ and provides nourishment until the young plant can carry out photosynthesis. 3. The sporophyte and gametophyte stage are found on the same plant of ___________ plants. 4. The male gametophyte of seed producing plants is in the dust-like structures we call __________________. Many people have allergies to these dust-like structures. 5. The three parts of a seed is the ________________ coat, ________________ food, and the _____________________ plant. 6. When a seed begins to grow we say the seed is undergoing _________________. 7. _________________________ produce seeds, but do not have flowers. 8. The most common group of gymnosperms is probably _________________. 9. The pine tree is an example of a sporophyte stage that produces male and female _________________, which make up the gametophyte stage. 10. The transfer of pollen to a female cone is known as _____________________. 11. _________________________ are flowering plants that produce seeds. 12. Angiosperms can be divided into two groups: 1) _________________ which only has one leaf inside the seed, and 2) ______________________ which have two leaves inside the seed. 13. Flowers often have specific colors or fragrances to attract specific _________________________. SECTION 4 STUDY GUIDE 1. Plants can be divided into three systems, the _______________, _______________, and ____________________ system. 2. The ___________________ system takes in water and minerals from the soil in most plants. 3. soil. In plants, the ____________________ transports water and minerals that are dissolved in the 4. The ___________________ carries sugars that the plant has produces. 5. Roots have three functions. They can transport needed materials, serve as an ______________ to keep the plant from falling over and the roots can also _________________ surplus food made during photosynthesis. 6. Roots are covered with _________________________ and have small root ____________ growing off the main root system. 7. The root type that has one main root is the ________________ system and the type with many roots branching out is called the _____________________ root system. 8. The _________________________ of most plants is located above ground and holds the plant body up. 9. There are _________________ types of stems. One stem is _________________, which is soft and pliable (bendable). The other type of stem is woody and is not as pliable. 10. Many plants have growth _________________ when there are periods of alternating slow and fast growth. 11. The main function of a leaf is to carry out ______________________, which is the process of taking in carbon dioxide and water and capturing the suns energy and making glucose and oxygen. 12. ________________________ cells open and close the stomata which is the location of gas exchange in a leaf. Water can also be lost through the stomata opening. 13. The male portion of a flower is the ____________________, which is made up of the filament and anther. 14. The female portion of a flower is the ___________________, which consists of the stigma, style, and ovary. 15. The ____________________ are found inside the ovary and turn into seeds after they are fertilized. 16. The ovary of a flowering plant turns into a ______________________. 17. The colorful portion of a flower is known as the _________________________. 18. The green portion under the petals that resemble small leaves are known as ____________________.