Subjunctive Grammar and Vocabulary Ⅱ December 20, 2011 Express English Happiness http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/l earningenglish/general/expresseng lish/2011/12/111212_ee_44_happine ss_page.shtml “When you're down, what makes you happy?” Shopping is a popular way to cheer yourself up. That's why they call it retail therapy! A nice view makes some people feel better. Others like having a laugh with friends. And at the end of a bad day, some men said seeing their wife made them happy. Very romantic! But why did the women not say this about their husbands…? Subjunctive The subjunctive is a set of verb forms used mainly in rather formal English to talk about possibilities rather than facts. The present subjunctive uses the base from of the verb (e.g. We suggest that she leave immediately) and the past subjunctive uses were (e.g. If I were you, I’d go home now.) Exercise 1 (4) If I (am/was/were) you, I would never do such a thing. ⇒ were (5) They suggested that we (go/went/will go) by bus. ⇒ go (6) If I had enough money, I (can/could/could have) buy this book. ⇒ could (7) (With/Without/As for) your help, I could not finish this report. ⇒ Without (8) I wish I (can/could/could have) be more intelligent. ⇒ could Exercise 2 (7) ピアノが弾けたらいいのになあ。 I [ the piano play could I wish ]. I wish I could play the piano. (8) もし戦争がなければ、世界は平和なの に…。 If [ wars not were there the world peaceful would be] If there were not wars, the world would be peaceful. If He Didn’t Like His Job, He Wouldn’t Work So Hard A: I wonder why Fred works so hard. B: I don’t know. He must like his job. A: You’re probably right. If he didn’t like his job, he wouldn’t work so hard. A: I wonder why my older brother and his girlfriend hold hands all the time. B: I don’t know. They must be in love. A: You’re probably right. If they weren’t in love, they wouldn’t hold hands all the time. If I Were You A: Do you think the boss would be angry if I went home early? B: Yes, I do. As a matter of fact, I think she’d be very angry. A: Do you really think so? B: Yes. I’m positive. I wouldn’t go home early if I were you. A: I suppose you’re right. Q and A (with subjunctive) What would you do if got 100,000 yen for otoshidama? What would you do if you won 100,000,000 yen in a lottery? What would you do if you were the prime minister of Japan? What would you do if you saw a woman being molested on the train? BBC Learning English Grammar Challenge http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/lear ningenglish/radio/specials/1159_gram challenge38/ Second conditional In this program we look at the second conditional -- a way of talking about impossible or unlikely events or situations. Exercise 2: Word Order 1. If he asked you to marry him, would you say yes? 2. How would we keep in touch if we didn't have computers? 3. Would you leave your job if the pay was lower than it is? 4. If she wasn't beautiful, he wouldn't be going out with her. 5. If people were more tolerant, there would be fewer wars. 6. If you couldn't speak English, we wouldn't be able to communicate. See you next week!