Total Quality Management in Education

Management of Change
 In institutional management, Management of
Change holds the key position all over the
 The head of the institution occupies important
position in initiation and managing the
process of change
 Head of the institute are accountable for
organizational growth and decay
Total Quality Management (TQM)
 TQM means quality in all aspects of
 The quality needs to be redefined from the
narrow criteria of achievement of students in
examinations to a holistic approach to quality of
life in schools.
 The system as a whole has to be taken care.
 Quality is not incidental or accidental.
 It is a planned and deliberate process.
 It should be on a continual basis
 Industrial Product
- Several Attributes that determine
 Functionality, durability, repairability, shape and size, design,
colour, uniqueness, cost, etc.
 Quality depends upon perception
of the user or the customer
 Service Sector:
- punctuality, time, cost,
courteousness, speed, accuracy etc.
- Quality depends upon client’s
 Education Sector
Parameters of Quality
 Perceptual
 Exceptional
 Perfection
 Value for money
 Continuous improvement
Quality Management Issues
Absolute versus Relative Quality
 Absolute Quality: Last words,
 highest standards,
 expensive,
 uniqueness & prestigious,
 very few people can afford
- Shaffers Pen & Rolls Royce Car
- Indian Institute of Technology in India
 Relative Quality
- Several products, services or organizations are
compared at a given time
- Same organization over time
- be the best and stay there
- Best is absolute concept but the best among the
better ones gives the relativism
- for staying there need continuous move
- Comparing quality of a consumer product is a
reference to relative quality
TQM: Systems Thinking
 Institution based management for
 Each institution comprises several subcomponents
 Inter-relationship and inter-dependence
 Develop a holistic thinking
 Look at the organization as a complete
organism (systems thinking)
Educational Institution as a System
 Input – process – output Model
 Identify Sub-systems & understand their
inter-relationships & interdependence
 Vision Mission & Goals;
 Academics;
 Personnel; finance;
 Infrastructure;
 Linkage & Interface;
 Student Services;
 Rules & Regulations;
 Institution Building Process and
Managing People at work
Systems Thinking (contd.)
 Sub-systems vary from one another but are
- finance, infrastructure: concrete & measurable
- Vision, mission & goals: abstract in nature
- Academic activities, students services, managing
people at work: organizational process
Systems Thinking (contd.)
 Academic Management:
- Admission
- Curriculum
- Instruction
- Co-curricular activities
- Student Assessment
Systems Thinking (contd.)
 Instruction contains:
- Classroom teaching,
- home assignments for students,
- project work,
- Lab. Practical,
- field visits, and
- Others
 School should be seen as total organism, not as
fragments of activities and structure
Planning for Implementation
 An Essay on the School
- Documentation of the perception of a
teachers & staff about the school
- Enormous difference in perception
- share & cross check each others belief &
bring it into open
Planning for Implementation (Contd.)
 Identification of areas of improvement
- list the areas of improvement
- specify a minimum number of improvement
- compile and tabulate to find common &
divergent views
- discuss again to find out problem areas of
improvement in the school
- the exercise helps in diagnosing individual ans
collective shortfall and identifying common
areas of improvement
Planning for Implementation (Contd.)
 Institutional assessment
- structured
- Qualitative and quantitative
- Pattern of growth can be diagnosed
- trend data assess changes and
Planning for Implementation (Contd.)
 SWOT Analysis
- Tool for organizational diagnosis
- Useful for reflection
- Decision making
- Evaluation
- Whatever idea you wish to consider think
in terms of strength, weakness
opportunity & threat
Planning for Implementation (Contd.)
 Vision, mission & goals
- build up a shared and acceptable
common vision, a mission and a set
of goals
- What would be your organization
after ten years
- After five years
- After three years
Planning for Implementation (Contd.)
Teacher Quality
Student Quality
5 years
3 years
Planning for Implementation (Contd.)
 Prioritization
- All the goals and improvement cannot be
achieved at the same time
- Prioritize the activities
- Pick one or two items at a time
Planning for Implementation (Contd.)
 Resource assessment and allocation
- four types of resources:
1. financial,
2. human,
3. infrastructural and
4. time
- allocate against each activity these
Planning for Implementation (Contd.)
 Evaluation and Monitoring
- develop the mechanism of monitoring
activities at every step
- also mechanism of evaluation to assess
the success
 It implies conversion of each of the
planned item into action
Concepts in Leadership
1 Designated leadership
 Ascribed leader
2 Autocratic
 Democratic
 Laissez Faire
 Autocratic leader takes the decision and hands it
down to subordinates for implementation
 Social setting is hierarchic & non- collegial
 Democratic leader consults others on important
matters and takes collective decision
 Laissez-Faire-leadership is indicated when things
are left to happen, often characterized by
Absence of initiative
Absence of intervention
Absence of Intervention
Absence of Monitoring
Leadership Styles
Telling Style:
 High concern for task but low concern for for
 Leader instructs to carry out the tasks
 Specifies the time, method of carrying out the
 Quality of the task output
 Leader is prepared to stake relationship for
accomplishment of tasks
 Hard-task master
 Dictatorial style
Leadership Style (Contd.)
Selling Style
 High Concern for task and high concern for
 Leader ensures task accomplishnent with
predefined quality & time without staking
 Salesman
 This is an important style when the principal
introduces innovation (Delphi Technique)
Leadership Style (Contd.)
Participating Style
 High concern for relationship but low concern
for task
 Reverse of telling style
 Leader stakes task accomplishment for
maintaining good relationship
 “Mr.Nice man” or “Madam Nice”
 Leader participate in the task accomplishment
 When routine, monotonous but necessary
work have to be done for the organization
Leadership Style (Contd.)
 Low concern for relationship & low concern for
 When things are allowed to happen
 Laissez-Faire Not taking any responsibility of
 Delegation is a purposeful decision
Situation Leadership & Style Preference
Style Preference
 This style indicates the style of preference
 Leader opts for one of the four styles
 The most frequently chos
Style Flex
 Style flex is indicated by the flexibility with
which one can change and adopt style as
required by a situation to be effective
Style Effectiveness
 Choose right style according to the situation
Thank You