the industrial society

Chapter 18
America Past and Present
Eighth Edition
Divine  Breen  Fredrickson  Williams  Gross  Brand
Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
Industrial Development
 Late
nineteenth-century U.S. offers ideal
conditions for rapid industrial growth
 Abundance of cheap natural resources
 Large pools of labor
 Largest free trade market in the world
 Capital, government support without
 Rapid growth 1865–1914
An Empire on Rails
 U.S.
industrial economy based on
expansion of the railroads
 Steamships made Atlantic crossings twice
as fast
 The telegraph and telephone transformed
"Emblem of Motion and Power"
 Railroads
transform American life
End rural isolation
 Allow regional economic specialization
 Make mass production, consumption
 Lead to organization of modern corporation
 Stimulate other industries
Federal Land Grants to Railroads
as of 1871
Rails Across the Continent
 1862:
Congress authorizes the
transcontinental railroad
 Union Pacific works westward from
Nebraska using Irish laborers
 Central Pacific works eastward using
Chinese immigrants
 May 10, 1869: Tracks meet in Utah,
Promontory Point
An Industrial Empire
 Bessemer
process converted iron into steel
leading to mass production
 Use of steel changes agriculture,
manufacturing, transportation, architecture
Carnegie and Steel
steel magnate
 Business practice: “vertical integration”
Definition: A type of organization in which a
single company owns and controls the entire
process from obtaining raw materials to
manufacture and sale of the finished product
Company – Carnegie Steel
Later sold company to JP Morgan – US Steel
Rockefeller and Oil
Petroleum was used as kerosene for lighting
 1859: First oil well drilled in Pennsylvania (Edwin
L. Drake – Drake’s Folly
 1863: John D. Rockefeller organizes Standard
Oil Company of Ohio
 Business practice – horizontal integration
(eliminates competition; creates a
1. What factors led to the 2nd Industrial
2. What were some new forms of
transportation after the Civil War?
3. How did railroads transform American life?
4. How were railroad companies able to
afford to build railroads?
5. Which immigrants built the railroads?
6. At what location did the 2 railroads that made
up the transcontinental railroad meet?
7. What was the Bessemer Process?
8. Which industry did Carnegie control?
What was the name of his company?
Which business practice did he employ?
9. Who was Edwin Drake?
10. What company did Rockefeller create,
which business practice did he use, and
what problem was there with the type of
business he created?