Final Exam * Review Sheet The Conservatism, Socialism, and The

Final Exam Review Sheet, PLSC 261
Autumn 2015
The Socialism, Conservatism, Future of Ideologies units will be on the final. The first four
pages of the fascism chapter (7) will be as well. Please note that many of the terms below
contain key reminders and points from class.
Readings from Ideals & Ideologies:
Reading 4.27 (4.24 in 8th ed) -- Burke (only the “Reflections on the Revolution in France”) Reading
4.28 (4.25 in 8th) – De Maistre (only the 2 short paragraphs “Considerations on France”)
Reading 4.29 (4.26 in 8th) – Oakeshott
Reading 4.33 (4.31 in 8th) – W James Antle, The Conservative Crack-Up
Socialism Terms
Utopian Socialists (Fourier; St Simon; Owen)
Marx’s views on capitalism
Importance of class & economic inequality for socialists
Dialectical Materialism (Marx’s understanding of the Master-Slave relationship)
Ideological superstructure
False consciousness
Four ways in which man is alienated under capitalism (Marxist view)
The Steps in the Revolutionary Sequence, according to Marx (see chart in Chapter 6)
(Also see lecture notes)
Marxism & Socialism – Originated as a reaction against what?
Reasons for Socialism’s failure in the United States
Fabian socialists
Tony Blair and Clause 4 – how did he end the UK Labour Party’s days as a Socialist
Party? (Recall importance of state ownership of the means of production for socialists.)
Market Socialism
Critical Western Marxism
Conservatism Terms (Chapter 4)
Terms for Traditional conservatism:
Edmund Burke -- father of conservatism: You should know:
Burke’s view of the social contract
Burke’s 4 principles of government (features of traditional conservatism)
Burke’s view of freedom (ordered liberty through self restraint or social restraint)
Burke’s view of the French Rev and the American Rev
"Assumption about human nature” made by Burke & traditional conservatives
Tory Democracy (opponents of Whigs (Liberals) in 19th century)
The conservative disposition (Oakeshott) (esp. the 5 “conclusions” on 164 bottom left)
Rockefeller Republicans (= Centrist Republicans of the 1930s-1950s)
---------------------End of Traditional Conservatism-----------------------1. Individualist conservatism (Modern conservatism or free market conservatism)
(Hayek, Friedman, Goldwater, Reagan, Thatcher)
Understand that they are neo-classical liberals. They created “movement conservatism”
as depicted in the film (The Conservatives).
Individualist (modern) conservatives’ CENTRAL role in the electoral success of
conservatism in the U.S. The 3 groups listed below joined their movement, as shown in
the film and in lecture.
2. Social Conservativism
Importance of social conservatism (sometimes populist resentment) against the cultural & social
liberalism of 1960s and against welfare liberalism after 1968.
Understand how they were a new kind of working & middle class conservative who
rejected what they saw as too much social liberalism & welfare liberalism from the 1960s
This important group (social conservatives) used to be referred to as Nixon Democrats or
Reagan Democrats.
3. Neoconservatism
Critique of capitalism (2 cheers for cap, not 3)
Critique of the welfare state & welfare liberalism (but they used to be leftists)
Hawkish position on foreign policy
Importance for the conservative movement
4. The Religious Right after 1973
Reacted against Roe v Wade which legalized abortion in 1973
The Religious Right as the 4th component of the “Reagan-Rove Coalition”
Other themes:
-- Anti-Communism and private property = Common theme of most conservatives
-- The conservative “movement” in the U.S. (Reagan-Rove Coalition) (pp. 112 – 120)
What was the Core??What were the 4 components? (See above #1, #2, #3, #4).
-- Problems with the Reagan-Rove Coalition after 2012 Election
The Future of Ideologies (Chapter 11) (will be covered June 3 & 5)
Resurgence & durability of nationalism & religion in the 20th Century
Tier Mondisme: Combination of Socialism & Nationalism (≠ Marx’s prediction of
Socialism without Nationalism)
Ideological reactions against Globalization, such as anti-World Trade Organization protest
movements, etc. (Benjamin Barber – Jihad vs. McWorld argument). See Lecture Notes.
End of Ideology arguments associated with Daniel Bell & Francis Fukuyama (p. 329-331
in 9th ed) (p. 285-6 in 8th ed)