AP Final Notes Cards 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. Name the structures that carries blood from the lungs back into the heart. Which major vessels carries oxygenated blood? Which major vessels carries deoxygenated blood? As the blood flows through the heart, which valve is located between the L atrium and L ventricle? Which vessel carries blood to general circulation? In the heart’s electrical conduction system, which structure is responsible for the “pacing” of the heart? Which electroconduction system structure is responsible for causing the ventricles to contract? On an EKG, what does the P wave mean? (MECHANICALLY) Name the two major differences between the structures of the artery vs vein. In diastole, which structures are contracting if the tricuspid and mitral valves are opened? In systole, which structures are contracting if the semilunar valves are opened? Which vessels carry blood to the heart? Which vessels carry blood away from the heart? Which of these veins carries oxygenated blood? Name the structure that separates the R & L ventricles? Which structure is the outermost sac of the heart and made of a fibrous tissue for protection? Which structure is the middle layer of the heart and consists of very dense cardiac muscle tissue? Which structure is the innermost layer of the heart and is made of smooth muscle tissue and is very soft? Which vessels that are attached to the capillaries carry 02- blood? Which term means “ the heart at rest”? On an EKG, what does the P wave mean?(ELECTRICALLY) What is going on in the heart, signified by the QRS complex? What does “repolarization” refer to? What does “depolarization” refer to? The heart has specialized cells that initiate the impulse for the heart to beat. What is the name of this structure? The heart is located in the____________________ cavity. The heart is about the size of a closed fist, and weighs______________ounces. The thrombocytes function is to________________________. The number of leukocytes in one milliliter of blood is________________. The protein on an erythrocyte that is responsible for carrying iron and oxygen is called______? Where is the Bundle of His located, and what is its function? ----------------in the left ventricle wall, send signal to AV node ----------------in the septum, send signal to the Purkinje fibers In the septum, sends signal to the R & L bundle branches. The circular muscle between the stomach and small intestine is____________ Jaundice is caused by an increased blood concentration of_________________ AP Final Notes Cards 37. The cone-shaped structure hanging down from the soft palate is called the_________, and functions to________________ 38. Which of the following is not a salivary gland? 39. This enzyme is produced by the salivary glands and begins the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. 40. This layer of the wall of the digestive tract is responsible for peristalsis. 41. The order of the segments of the small intestine from the stomach to the large intestine is which of the following? 42. Which of the following structures would bile produced by the liver not have to pass through to get to the small intestine? 43. The effect of cholecystokinin is to________ 44. One of the effects of untreated gallstones that block the bile ducts could be 45. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that help digest 46. The order in which material passes through the large intestine is 47. Functions of the respiratory mucosa are to__________________________ 48. Which of the facial bones does not contain a paranasal sinus? 49. Subdivisions of the pharynx? 50. The first respiratory structure without cartilage as a supporting tissue is 51. The movement of air into and out of the lung is called 52. The exchange of gases between the cells and the blood is called 53. External respiration requires a higher oxygen concentration in the___________ than in the _________ 54. Internal respiration requires a higher oxygen concentration in the___________than in the__________ 55. This is the hormone that reduces the level of calcium in the blood. 56. The secretion of hormones from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is largely controlled by_________ 57. Which hormone is secreted by nerve fibers in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland? 58. Which of the following hormones exerts its effect primarily upon the reproductive organs? 59. A person with an abnormally high metabolic rate, who is underweight and who has protruding eyes is exhibiting symptoms of 60. This hormone is released by the posterior pituitary and increases water retention in the body. 61. This hormone is released by the adrenal cortex, increases the glucose level of the blood, and is an anti-inflammatory. 62. An increase in the level of this hormone causes ovulation. 63. This hormone is made in the pineal gland and affects the biological clock. AP Final Notes Cards 19.