6 Traits Writing Assessment: An Overview What is “6 Traits”? • A model for teaching and assessing • Developed when researchers asked the question, “What are the traits of good writing?” • 6 Traits is flexible and standards-based, allowing you to evaluate each LEP student against his or her own progress. Introducing: The Traits 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ideas Organization Voice Word Choice Sentence Fluency Conventions Idea: The Content • Select an idea (the topic) • Narrow the idea (focus) • Elaborate on the idea (development) • Discover the best information to convey the idea (details) Writing a Personal Narrative: Write about a time you felt embarrassed. Fish Cheeks Who was in the story? Ask students to tell you who was in the story. Mother Father Cousins Robert His family My Personal Narrative Who will be in my story? Ask students to write down the characters for their story. Writing a Personal Narrative: Write about a time you felt embarrassed. What happened? Amy was embarrassed by her family. What happened? What happened to you? Organization: Organization is the internal structure of the piece, the thread of central meaning, the pattern of logic. • An inviting introduction gets the reader started and gives clues about what is to come. • Thoughtful transitions link key points and ideas. • Sequencing should be logical, purposeful, and effective. • Pacing – speeding up for wide angle and slowing down for close-ups – should be under control. • A satisfying conclusion wraps it all up, yet leaves the reader with something to wonder about. Writing a Personal Narrative: Write about a time you felt embarrassed. Amy felt embarrassed. Write about a time when you felt embarrassed. Amy’s parents invited the preacher and his family to dinner. Beginning Amy’s mom prepared and hosted the dinner. Middle The guest leave and Amy’s mom gave her a gift. End When working with your students, you will allow time for them to work on a draft. Writing a Personal Narrative: Write about a time you felt embarrassed. After students complete their first draft, you would scaffold their writing to modify the draft, by working on voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and finally conventions. Using the next slides will assist you in using the model text to assist students in revising the text. Voice: Voice is the golden thread that runs through a piece of writing. It’s how the reader knows it is really you. • • • • Where the writer reveals their personality Very difficult to teach Use quality writing for examples Seems to be best achieved through honesty • • • • • At minimum, writing should evidence an awareness of: Audience Context Significance of the topic Attempting to connect the audience to the writing Writing a Personal Narrative: Write about a time you felt embarrassed. Fish Cheeks Find an example of Amy tan expressing her voice in the text. “You only shame is be ashame.” My story Identify a place where can add your voice to your story. Word Choice: … the use of rich, colorful, precise language that communicates not just in a functional way, but also in a way that moves and enlightens the reader. • • • • Precision Clarity Variety “grade-level appropriateness” • An area of weakness for our students • Strong vocabulary is developed through reading • That vocabulary can be wonderfully reinforced through its application in writing Writing a Personal Narrative: Write about a time you felt embarrassed. Word Choice Fish Cheeks Can you identify a place in the text where the author used interesting word choice to describe an event? The kitchen was littered with appalling mounds of raw food. My Story Identify a place in your story where you can add interesting words to describe and event. Sentence Fluency: Fluent writing is graceful, varied, rhythmic – almost musical. It’s easy to read aloud. • • • • Is best described by what to avoid: Repetitive sentence structures Short, choppy sentences Incorrect sentence structures • • • LEPs need to work on this trait Overtly teach varied sentence structures On rewrites, challenge students to use the same words in new ways Writing a Personal Narrative: Write about a time you felt embarrassed. Fish Cheeks A slimy rock cod with bulging fish eyes that pleaded not to be thrown into a pan of hot Tofu, which looked like stacked wedges of rubbery white sponges. My Story Identify a place in your story where you would like to expand a sentence. Conventions Almost anything a copy editor deals with comes under the heading of conventions: punctuation, grammar and usage, capitalization, and paragraphing. • Spelling • Grammar • Punctuation Writing a Personal Narrative: Write about a time you felt embarrassed. Teach using a dictionary. Peer Editing Model using spell check or other software to check work. Model how to edit work using editing conventions. Sentence lifting on the Smart Board to model corrections. Rereading to make final checks. Writing a Personal Narrative: Write about a time you felt embarrassed. Assessing Student Work Writing a Personal Narrative: Write about a time you felt embarrassed. • There are rubrics for each trait. • Please allow students to use the rubrics to evaluate their work. • Evaluate one trait at a time. Ideas Rubric 2 – Emerging 3 – Developing Thesis, main idea or main theme is emerging. Details are present. Thesis, main idea or main theme is apparent. Details are present, although not always necessarily relevant or appropriate. Content area concepts are reflected, but perhaps not at grade-level level of comprehension. 4 – Expanding 5 – Bridging Thesis, main idea Ideas are strong or main theme is and original. Thesis clear. Details are or main theme is accurate and clear and relevant. Details at compelling. Details least tangentially are accurate, support the thesis, relevant and welltheme or main idea. chosen. Details Content material clearly support the approaches being thesis, theme or appropriate to main idea. Content grade-level and material is intended audience. appropriate to grade-level and to intended audience. Organization Rubric 2 – Emerging 3 – Developing 4 – Expanding 5 – Bridging An organizational structure to the writing is starting to emerge with either a beginning, an end, or perhaps both present. An obvious organizational structure is present, although may be simplistic or “cookie-cutter”, and not strictly ideal for the content. Transitions may be minimal or lacking. An obvious organizational structure is present; a beginning, middle, and an end are present and all connected with logical transitions. The structure bears an appropriate relationship to the content. A creative, strong flow to the writing results from an internal organization that draws the reader in and then moves him/her through the piece from beginning to end. Voice Rubric 2 – Emerging 3 – Developing 4 – Expanding 5 – Bridging Struggles with word choice and sentence fluency limit most displays of voice, both as a representation of the student’s personality, and as an attempt to address the audience in an appropriate register. The student attempts to engage the audience and address the purpose, but fails to make a perceivable connection. Writing may be somewhat lifeless, mechanical. The response shows an awareness of the purpose and audience for this prompt. The student reveals their personality or engagement to the topic to some degree. Response is engaging and appropriate to purpose and audience. The writer reveals a style that clearly reflects his or her personality. Word Choice Rubric 2 – Emerging 3 – Developing 4 – Expanding 5 – Bridging English words relate to prompt. Word choice is weak and at times inaccurate. A heavy dependence on high-frequency words and phrases limits expression. English words address prompt. Word choice is simplistic and basic. Attempts are made to employ contentspecific vocabulary, with varying degrees of success. English words respond to prompt. Word choice includes synonyms and words that are more complex. Technical and content-based vocabulary emerges and is used with some accuracy. A varied vocabulary is employed to express concepts clearly and vividly. Technical and content-based vocabulary is used appropriately and with confidence. Sentence Fluency Rubric 2 – Emerging 3 – Developing 4 – Expanding 5 – Bridging Two or more complete sentences are present, but there are problems with grammar or a repetitive sentence pattern. Two or more complete sentences are present and are grammatically correct. There is variation in the sentence structures. Two or more complete and correct sentences are present, there is variation in structure and that variation enhances the flow and readability of the piece. A variety of sentence structures are employed in a manner that enhances the material and the flow and readability of the piece. Complex syntax structures are handled deftly and used appropriately. Conventions Rubric 2 – Emerging 3 – Developing 4 – Expanding 5 – Bridging Some words are capitalized, spelled or punctuated correctly; most are not. Capitalization & punctuation are mostly correct. Spelling is usually right. Grammar & usage are still very weak. Capitalization, punctuation, spelling, and grammar usage are strong and usually correct. Little editing would be required to make this piece perfect. Appropriate conventional structures, such as letter greetings or bulleted lists, are attempted and recognizable. Capitalization, punctuation, spelling, and grammar usage are correct. Appropriate conventional structures, such as letter greetings or bulleted lists, are employed in the correct format or style. Types of Writing Optional Writing Assignments for Fish Cheeks narrative short story poems Writing Essay journals letters Write a letter to Amy and share a time when you were embarrassed. Create a pamphlet pamphlet about Chinese foods or advertising a Chinese restaurant. notes Write an essay to support Amy’s embarrassment or why she should not have been embarrassed. Cite evidence from the text. Remember, each type of writing must be modeled for students. Supporting ELs with Writing Sentence Frames with or without word-level support Example: Question: What lesson did Tan learn over time? Answer: Over time, Tan learned _____________________. Supporting ELs with Writing Paragraph Frames with or without word-level support Example: Question: Based on the text, how does the author describe Robert in the text? According to the text, the author describes Robert in __________ ways. First, in paragraph 1, the author says __________________. Next, in paragraph 5 the author used the words ______________ to describe Robert. Finally, in paragraph 6, the author says _____________. Based on the text, I think Bobby is _list of character traits to refer to . Color Coded Paragraph Frames Topic Sentence Supporting Details plus transition Elaboration Supporting Details plus transition Elaboration Supporting Details plus transition Conclusion 29 Color Coded Paragraph Frames Why was the author embarrassed during dinner? The author was embarrassed during dinner several times. The first time she was embarrassed was when her relatives licked the ends of their chopsticks and reached across the table. They put their chopsticks into the plates of food. Secondly, she was embarrassed when her father poked his chopstick into the eye of the fish. She said she wanted to disappear after he said, “Amy, your favorite.” The final straw to her embarrassment, was when her father belched at the table. Even though he explained the custom, she was “stunned into silence”. The author was embarrassed many times during dinner because her culture was different from that of her guest. 30 Keys to Success in Teaching Writing • Allow time for oral discussion before writing. • Give students time to write as a group. • Provide sentence frames or paragraph frames. • Provide graphic organizers. • MODEL for your students.