Modules19-01to19

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BIOLOGY
CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS
Fourth Edition
Neil A. Campbell • Jane B. Reece • Lawrence G. Mitchell • Martha R. Taylor
CHAPTER 19
Human Evolution
Modules 19.1 – 19.2
From PowerPoint® Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Are We Related to the Neanderthals?
• Neanderthals were an early
species of humans who
lived in Europe until about
40,000 years ago
• Many have wondered if
Neanderthal interbred
with the proposed
ancestors of modern
humans, Cro-Magnons
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• DNA analysis has suggested that Neanderthals
are a different species from Cro-Magnon
– DNA isolated from Neanderthal bones in 1997
was found to be much different from that of
modern humans
• But the presence of Neanderthal-like traits
thousands of years after Neanderthals had
disappeared seems to suggest that there had
been significant interbreeding with CroMagnon
• Much of human evolution is still open to
differing interpretations
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
PRIMATE DIVERSITY
19.1 The human story begins with our primate
heritage
• Humans are members of an order of mammals,
the primates
– Primates first appeared about 65 million years
ago
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The first primates lived in trees, and we have
inherited some of their characteristics
– Limber joints
– Sensitive grasping hands
– Short snout
– Forward-pointing eyes that enhance depth
perception
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• There are two groups of living primates
– The prosimians, such as lorises and lemurs
Figure 19.1A, B
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
– The anthropoids, which include monkeys, apes,
and humans
Figure 19.1C, D
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
ANTHROPOIDS
ANCESTRAL PRIMATE
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Humans
Chimpanzees
Orangutans
APES
Gibbons
Old World monkeys
New World monkeys
Tarsiers
Lemurs, lorises, and pottos
Millions of years ago
MONKEYS
Gorillas
PROSIMIANS
Figure 19.1E
19.2 Apes are our closest relatives
• Humans are most closely related to the apes
– These primates lack tails and have forelimbs
longer than their hind limbs
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The apes include
– Gibbons
– Orangutans
Figure 19.2A, B
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
– Gorillas
– Chimpanzees
Figure 19.2C, D
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• We share more than 97% of our genes with
chimpanzees
– They are our closest living relatives
• Our behavior also has some similarities
– Chimpanzees make and use simple tools
– They seem to have a sense of self
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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