Name Class Period ______ Chapter 15 Notes and Study Guide All

Name ____________________________________
Class Period __________
Chapter 15 Notes and Study Guide All Combined Into One!!
Texas and the Union
Section 1 Presidential Reconstruction
1. Reconstruction: rebuilding of the South; changes that Texas and all southern states had to
make in order to be readmitted to the Union
2. Reconstruction Affected Texas
a. Politically: had to write a new state constitution
b. Economically: had to get used to economy and labor system that was not based on slavery
c. Socially: had to accept African Americans as equal citizens
3. Emancipation: means freedom
4. Emancipation Proclamation:
a. Issued by Pres Lincoln before Civil War was ended
b. Freed all slaves in Confederate states
c. Texas ignored Emancipation Proclamation because it was not under US rule
5. Who freed the slaves in Texas? Gordon Granger (in Galveston)
6. What is Juneteenth? June 19, 1865--day all slaves were freed in Texas
7. 13th Amendment to US Constitution: abolished slavery
8. Freedman: person who has been freed from slavery
9. Freedman's Bureau: helped former slaves find food, shelter, medicine, jobs, started
by Congress; created schools for African American children
10. What 4 things did US President Andrew Johnson say southern states have to do to become
part of the US again?
a. states had to end slavery
b. states had to declare secession illegal
c. states had to cancel all war debts (basically implied that Confederacy no longer existed)
d. Adult white males had to pledge loyalty to US to get back right to vote
11.Temporary Governor of Texas, Andrew Hamilton's, main job was to: begin reconstruction in TX
12.Amendment: change made to a constitution, law, etc
13. Civil Rights: rights belonging to all citizens
14. Black Codes: southern laws that said what African Americans could/could not do
15. According to Black Codes, African Americans:
a. were considered 2nd class citizens
b. could not marry a white person
c. could not vote
d. had to use separate public transportation
e. could not benefit from Texas Homestead Law
16. Radical Republicans:
a. Believed Congress should have power to admit states back into Union; not President
b. Thought reconstruction should punish south
17. Veto: when head of government refuses to sign a bill passed by legislature
Section 2 Congressional Reconstruction
1. 14th Amendment to US Constitution: Granted citizenship to former slaves
2. Why didn't Texas want to ratify the 14th Amendment? didn't want to accept end of slavery and
recognize equality of African Americans
3. Reconstruction Act of 1867:
a. Placed southern states under military rule
b. required states to eliminate Black Codes and write constitutions that gave black men
right to vote
c. Divided 10 remaining states into 5 military districts (Tennessee had already been
admitted back into Union because they approved 14th amendment)
4. District: divisions in a state or area; divided for a specific purpose
Texas under rule of General Philip Sheridan
5. Ironclad Oath: oath Texas citizens had to take to pledge loyalty to US...had to do this in order
to be able to vote on any new constitution
6. Ku Klux Klan: secret group that did not want African Americans to have rights
7. Goal of the KKK: restore democratic power in south and keep slaves powerless
Section 3 A New Constitution
1. 15th Amendment: gave African American men right to vote
2. When was Texas admitted back into the Union? March 8, 1870
3. Who was governor of Texas when Texas was admitted back into the Union? Edmund Davis
4. Martial Law: rule by army instead of police. Military could be called out to control any civil
5. Redeemers: Texans who opposed Governor Davis
6. Redeemers named Gov Edmund Davis' Legislative Programs: The Obnoxious Acts
7. What is the Texas Constitution that Texas uses today? Constitution of 1876
8. List provisions of the Constitution of 1876:
a. Took much power away from governor and lt governor
b. Texas legislature could only meet every other year
c. Set aside land grants for education
d. Provided for homestead and railroad grants
9. How many times has Texas Constitution been amended? over 400
10. Why is it good that the Texas Constitution limits the Texas Legislature's power to make
changes unless there is an amendment to the Constitution?
They can't make a law just because they like it or want to
Texas voters make the decisions about laws and changes to constitution
Any amendment to TX Constitution has to be voted on by citizens