Applied Chemistry Mr. Gensits Class Notes 9/27/2010 Properties of Matter Describing Matter Mass – a measure of the amount of matter an object contains Volume – a measure of the space occupied by an object Extensive Property – a property that depends on the amount of matter in the sample Intensive Property – a property that depends on the type of matter, not the amount of matter Identifying Substances Substance – matter that has a uniform and definite composition Every sample of a given substance has identical intensive properties because every sample has the same definite composition! Physical Property – a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance’s composition. Examples: hardness, color, mass, boiling point, solubility in water, odor States of Matter 1. Solid Has a definite shape and volume Cannot be easily compressed Expands only slightly when heated The particles are packed tightly together Forces hold the particles in position There is little movement of the particles 2. Liquid Flows Has a fixed volume but takes the shape of the container Cannot be easily compressed Less dense than solids Expands slightly when heated Particles are close to one another but are not held in position Arrangement of particles is not rigid or orderly 3. Gas Flows Takes both the shape and volume of the container Expands to fill whatever container it is in Easily compressed Particles are far from one another Vapor - a substance that is in the gaseous state but is normally a liquid or solid at room temperature Examples: Water, Mercury, Gasoline 4. Plasma – an ionized gas in which the electrons have been stripped from the individual atoms allowing the sample to act as a whole. This is the most common form of matter in the universe! 5. Bose-Einstein Condensate – a “superfluid” in which atoms have collapsed into a single quantum state All of the atoms are identical and it is impossible to tell them apart. Physical Changes – some properties of a material change, but the composition of the material does not change Examples: boiling, dissolving, cutting, freezing, crushing All phase changes are physical changes!!